Analysis #8 - Nabeel Siddiqui nhs256 Bio 206L Wed....

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nhs256 Bio 206L Wed. 9:00-1:00 (49530) 3/23/2010 Representative Vertebrate Anatomy Exercise # 8: Analysis 1. 1) The digestive pathway of a rat starts off when the rat chews and macerates its food with the help of its salivary glands in order to make the food easy to swallow. 2) Next the food travels down the rat’s pharynx which leads the food from the oral cavity down to the esophagus. The esophagus travels down the rat’s thoracic cavity and leads to the rat’s stomach. 3) In the stomach, the food is partially digested and basically stored there until it passes into the small intestine. The pyloric sphincter, located at the base of the stomach, controls the passage of the digested food into the small intestine. 4) Most of the chemical digestion and the absorption of key nutrients occur in the small intestine of the rat. The duodenum or anterior portion of the small intestine receives the ducts from the digestive glands, pancreas and liver. The digestive fluids then help to break down the food so that it may be absorbed by the walls of the small intestine. The walls are lined with villi which increase the overall surface area of the small intestines. The walls of the intestines are where most of the chemical and nutrient absorption occurs. 5) The nutrients are then picked up by the tiny blood capillaries and vessels that line the small intestine. The nutrients are then transported throughout the body via the circulatory system and end up in various cells throughout the rats’ body such as a muscle cell in the rat’s leg. The nutrients then provide energy to the cell in the form of ATP which allows the cell to function. * The molecule which is absorbed in the digestive process is glucose. It provides energy in the cell after cellular respiration, which converts glucose to ATP 2. A.) Liver - The liver has many functions such as detoxification of certain chemicals and production of glycogen (a carbohydrate storage material). Also the liver produces bile which is then deposited into the small intestine. Bile is important for the proper digestion of fats. B.) Kidney – Filters the blood stream to remove waste products which are later
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Analysis #8 - Nabeel Siddiqui nhs256 Bio 206L Wed....

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