Bio exam cheat sheet - Crossing over and Ind. Assortment...

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Crossing over and Ind. Assortment happen during meiosis I. Can lead to trillion different gametes. (Snails)- Sexual reproduction more likely in environments of high stress. (Parasites) Sexual Diphorism- Males are usually bigger due to competition for females. Male Pipefish- reversed sex roles, therefore competition affects females more than males. (Excess females- less females mated) The inheritance of genes on different chromosomes is independent: independent assortment Crossing Over rarely occurs between adjacent Loci of Genes. And almost always happens when genes are far apart on the same chromosome. X chromosome carries many genes, Y chromosome carries genes for maleness only. (small) Sex linked Traits are carried on the X chromosome To compensate for 2 X chromosomes, females can inactivate their x chromosomes. Imprinting: Exposure to environment sets mother. When environment is the same, the genetic differences are amplified, When environment is different the environment is amplified. Smoking causes decreased birth weight and antisocial behavior. Birth weight- environmental, Antisocial- genetic Social Monogamy = pair lives/works together, but not “faithful” Sexual Monogamy = pair raise young and only copulate with each other Memes and genes are similar- Copy with imperfect infidelity. Humans are exclusive to memes. Divergent Evolution- species diversified because of changes in environment. Come from same ancestor. Convergent Evolution- a number of species shares the same traits because of environment. Fins on fish, dolphins, and whales. Natural Selection can only occur when, there is genetic diversity, and some individuals cannot reproduce.
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This note was uploaded on 01/25/2011 for the course BIO 311D taught by Professor Reichler during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Bio exam cheat sheet - Crossing over and Ind. Assortment...

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