Civil War Exam 2 ID’s
Battle of Shiloh
April 6-7, 1862
Also known as The Battle of Pittsburg Landing
Battle fought in the Western theatre
Southwestern Tennessee forces lead by Albert Sidney Johnston and PGT
Beauregard launch a surprise attack against the Union Army and Maj.
Gen. Ulysses S. Grant.
On the first day of battle, the Confederates struck with the intention of
driving the Union defenders away from the Tennessee River and into the
swamps of Owl Creek to the west, hoping to defeat Grant's Army of the
Tennessee before it could link up with Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell's
Army of the Ohio.
The Confederate battle lines became confused during the fierce fighting,
and Grant's men instead fell back in the direction of Pittsburg Landing to
the northeast. A position on a slightly sunken road, nicknamed the
"Hornet's Nest", defended by the men of
Prentiss's and W.H.L. Wallace's divisions, provided critical time for the
rest of the Union line to stabilize under the protection of numerous
artillery batteries. Gen. Johnston was killed during the first day's fighting,
and Beauregard, his second in command, decided against assaulting the
final Union position that night.
Reinforcements from Gen. Buell arrived in the evening and turned the tide
the next morning, when he and Grant launched a counterattack along the
entire line. The Confederates were forced to retreat from the bloodiest
battle in United States history up to that time, ending their hopes that they
could block the Union invasion of northern Mississippi.
Battle of Chickamauga
Battle of Chickamauga
, fought September 18 to
1863, marked the end of a
offensive in south-central Tennessee and
northwestern Georgia called the
The battle was the most significant Union defeat in the Western Theater of
the American Civil War. The battle was fought between the Union Army
of the Cumberland under
William Rosecrans and the
Army of Tennessee under General Braxton Bragg, and was
named for the (now South) Chickamauga Creek, which flows into the
Tennessee River about 3.5 miles (5.6km) northeast of downtown
was a local Indian word meaning "Stagnant River" or, less
accurately, "River of Death," a usage that may have begun after the battle.
Considered a Confederate victory for halting the Union advance, the
Battle of Chickamauga was a costly one. It claimed an estimated 34,624
casualties (16,170 for the Union; 18,454 for the Confederates)
Also known as the Second Battle of Bull Run by the Union