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Civil War Exam 2 ID’s

Civil War Exam 2 ID’s - Civil War Exam 2...

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Civil War Exam 2 ID’s 1. Battle of Shiloh o April 6-7, 1862 o Also known as The Battle of Pittsburg Landing o Battle fought in the Western theatre o Southwestern Tennessee forces lead by Albert Sidney Johnston and PGT Beauregard launch a surprise attack against the Union Army and Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant. o On the first day of battle, the Confederates struck with the intention of driving the Union defenders away from the Tennessee River and into the swamps of Owl Creek to the west, hoping to defeat Grant's Army of the Tennessee before it could link up with Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell's Army of the Ohio. o The Confederate battle lines became confused during the fierce fighting, and Grant's men instead fell back in the direction of Pittsburg Landing to the northeast. A position on a slightly sunken road, nicknamed the "Hornet's Nest", defended by the men of Brig. Gens. Benjamin M. Prentiss's and W.H.L. Wallace's divisions, provided critical time for the rest of the Union line to stabilize under the protection of numerous artillery batteries. Gen. Johnston was killed during the first day's fighting, and Beauregard, his second in command, decided against assaulting the final Union position that night. o Reinforcements from Gen. Buell arrived in the evening and turned the tide the next morning, when he and Grant launched a counterattack along the entire line. The Confederates were forced to retreat from the bloodiest battle in United States history up to that time, ending their hopes that they could block the Union invasion of northern Mississippi. 2. Battle of Chickamauga o The Battle of Chickamauga , fought September 18 to September 20 , 1863, marked the end of a Union offensive in south-central Tennessee and northwestern Georgia called the Chickamauga Campaign . o The battle was the most significant Union defeat in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. The battle was fought between the Union Army of the Cumberland under Maj. Gen. William Rosecrans and the Confederate Army of Tennessee under General Braxton Bragg, and was named for the (now South) Chickamauga Creek, which flows into the Tennessee River about 3.5 miles (5.6km) northeast of downtown Chattanooga. o Chickamauga was a local Indian word meaning "Stagnant River" or, less accurately, "River of Death," a usage that may have begun after the battle. o Considered a Confederate victory for halting the Union advance, the Battle of Chickamauga was a costly one. It claimed an estimated 34,624 casualties (16,170 for the Union; 18,454 for the Confederates) 3. Second Manassas o Also known as the Second Battle of Bull Run by the Union
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o Fought between August 28 and August 30, 1862 , as part of the American Civil War. It was the culmination of an offensive campaign waged by Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia against Union Maj. Gen. John Pope 's Army of Virginia, and a battle of much larger scale and numbers than the First Battle of Bull Run (First Manassas), fought in 1861 on the same ground.
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