Comm 270 Review Sheet Short Answer and MC

Comm 270 Review Sheet Short Answer and MC - Rhetorical...

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Rhetorical situation Defined (Bitzer): “A complex of persons, events, objects, and relations presenting an actual or potential exigence which can be completely or partially removed if discourse, introduced into the situation, can so constrain human decision or action as to bring about the significant modification of the exigence.” Exigence, Audience Constraints The Toulmin Model 1. Claim : the position or claim being argued for; the conclusion of the argument. 2. Grounds: reasons or supporting evidence that bolster the claim. 3. Warrant: the principle, provision or chain of reasoning that connects the grounds/ reason to the claim. 4. Backing : support, justification, reasons to back up the warrant. 5. Rebuttal/Reservation: exceptions to the claim; description and rebuttal of counter- examples and counter-arguments. 6. Qualification : specification of limits to claim, warrant and backing. The degree of conditionality asserted. Burke’s Pentad The foundation of dramatism is the concept of motive: the reasons why people do the things they do. 1. Act: What happened? What is the action? What is going on? What action; what thoughts? 2. Scene: Where is the act happening? What is the background situation? 3. Agent: Who is involved in the action? What are their roles? 4. Agency: How do the agents act? By what means do they act? 5. Purpose: Why do the agents act? What do they want? What are Aristotle’s three genres? Genre Place Temporality Goal (determination of) Means Forensic Court Past Just/Unjust Accusation/Defense Epideictic Agora Present Honor/Dishonor Praise/Blame Deliberative Assembly Future Expedient/Inexpedient Exhortation/Dissuasion Topoi Topos = Place (Topoi = Places); Sometimes called “commonplaces” Systems of Topoi or Topical Systems offer systematic ways of finding things to says (sayables) about a subject matter and choosing from among them. Topoi are contentless (empty until you put something in it), analytic (broken up into parts; thinking about different parts at a time), and heuristic (generates ideas and possibilities) Aristotelian Topoi Universal or Common Topics (Konoi Topoi): Possible/impossible, Past Fact, Future Fact, Degree (more or less) Material Topics (Idia): specific premises for particular kinds of speaking; much more specific to kinds of subject matters or genres REMEMBER: Aristotle says rhetoric was finding means of persuasion for a specific case…(?)
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Roman canons (or officia ) of rhetoric o Inventio (Invention): find ideas o Dispositio (Organization)” structure ideas o Elocutio (Style): language/word choices o Memoria (Memory): remembering one’s points o Actio (Delivery): act of speaking Aristotle’s modes of proof (or means of persuasion ) Inventio (Invention) Includes Aristotelian means of persuasion: logos, ethos, and pathos - Means of Persuasion o Ethos- Character o Pathos- Inducing a State of Mind or Emotional State o Logos- Words, Content, Logic Burke’s theory of symbolic action The focal term, “Identification”
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This note was uploaded on 01/24/2011 for the course COMM 270 taught by Professor Blaire during the Spring '08 term at UNC.

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Comm 270 Review Sheet Short Answer and MC - Rhetorical...

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