2 Numerical Data - Basics

# 2 Numerical Data - Basics - Dr Harvey A Singer School of...

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© 2007 by Harvey A. Singer 1 OM 210:  Statistical Analysis for Management Data Presentation 2: Presenting Numerical Data Basic Methodologies Dr. Harvey A. Singer School of Management George Mason University

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© 2007 by Harvey A. Singer 2 Topics List Data presentation introduction. Presenting qualitative data. Presenting quantitative data. Exploratory data analysis. Cross-tabulations and scatter diagrams.
© 2007 by Harvey A. Singer 3 Learning Objectives 1. Tabulate and display qualitative (categorical) data. Both nominal and ordinal data. 2. Organize numerical data. 3. Tables and charts for numerical variables and data. 1. Graphing bivariate numerical data. 5. Good and bad data presentation.

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© 2007 by Harvey A. Singer 4 Tabulating and Graphing Quantitative Data Univariate data Data collected for a single variable. Tabulate using a frequency distribution. Graph using a histogram, bar chart, pie chart, or Pareto diagram. Bivariate Data Data collected simultaneously for a pair of variables. Tabulate using a cross-tabulation or contingency table. Graph using a scatter graph.
© 2007 by Harvey A. Singer 5 Presenting Quantitative Data Frequency distribution. Relative frequency distributions. Cumulative and cumulative relative frequency distributions. Dot diagram. Stem-and-leaf diagram. Histogram. Tables Graphs

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© 2007 by Harvey A. Singer 6 The Problem To classify and categorize numerical data. In principle, similar to what was done for qualitative data. For qualitative data, the classes are obvious, logical, or meaningful and are generally known beforehand. – Classify by gender into male or female. – Sort and count marbles by their color. BUT, for numerical data, the classification scheme is not obvious and is not known beforehand. The classification scheme must be devised by the statistics practitioner. The classes are stated as continuous ranges of values. – The problem is how to devise the classification scheme. » After that, it is straightforward to sort and count. – Additionally, how to augment the classification scheme for various presentations.
© 2007 by Harvey A. Singer 7 Presenting Numerical Data Ordered Array Numerical Data Frequency Distributions Small samples of size n < 30 Large samples of size n 30

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© 2007 by Harvey A. Singer 8 Presenting Numerical Data Ordered Array Numerical Data Stem-&-Leaf Display Dot Diagram Graphical representations
© 2007 by Harvey A. Singer 9 Data Indexing Numerical data for a single quantitative variable is generically labeled “ x .” Individual values are distinguished by a dummy index i . i is a counter. From the first value where i = 1 to the last value for which i = n . x i is the i th observed data value.

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© 2007 by Harvey A. Singer 10 Example: Project Duration Sample of n = 11 projects for their completion times in whole days.
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## This note was uploaded on 01/26/2011 for the course OM 210 taught by Professor Singer during the Fall '08 term at George Mason.

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2 Numerical Data - Basics - Dr Harvey A Singer School of...

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