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Lecture 8 - Lecture 8 Thickeners Solutions Suspensions Emulsions Gels Foods are mixtures of carbohydrates proteins fats vitamins minerals and water

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Lecture 8 Thickeners Solutions, Suspensions, Emulsions, Gels
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Foods are mixtures of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water. Some foods contain air as well. Physical state—solid, liquid or gas will affect the nature of the food.
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Predominant Nutrients in foods Water—all food contains Found in 3 physical states Liquid Steam Ice Chemically—H + OH - (polar)
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Carbohydrates in foods Sugars – single hexose units of glucose, manose, and ------- Starches Heat application: (chemical reaction) Moist heat gelatinizes starch Dry heat caramelizes sugars
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Proteins in foods Complex chain of amino acids Heat application: Denature – moisture loss, irreveresible or coagulate
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Fats in foods Insoluble in water Due to the insoluble nature, fats do not mix with other food components Heat application causes fat to melt Forms a barrier for the evaporation of water
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thickeners Used in food preparation to improve the mouthfeel of foods by increasing viscosity of liquids.
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Why are thickeners used?
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Salad Dressing
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What would you prefer? This…….
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Or this?
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More thickened products
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Commercial Products
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More colloidal dispersions
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Thickened Products Soups Cream – prepared using a white sauce aka thickened milk product Cream of asparagus, cauliflower, celery, chicken, corn, mushroom, tomato Puree – thickening occurs because of the pulp of the vegetable Ingredients placed in a blender Bisque Cream and puree combined Lobster bisque Sauce Thickened with egg, butter, and cream
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Soups thickened with other ingredients Starch thickeners Grains Flour Rice cornstarch Roots/tubers Potato starch arrowroot
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solution Homogeneous mixture of solute in a solvent. Usually small molecules thoroughly dissolved in water.
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Colloidal dispersion Solute particles are large (too large to be homogeneous as in a solution) but not large enough to precipitate.
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viscosity The property of a fluid that resists internal flow by releasing counteracting forces.
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coalescence To grow together, unite into a whole. Undesirable, product separates May happen in extreme temperatures —freezing or heating
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Colloidal (Dispersion) Systems One set of molecules mixed in another Dispersion medium (continuous phase) (solvent)—usually water = water Dispersed phase (solute)—CHO, protein, or something else Either of both of the following effect the stability Chemical charge on the surface of molecules Layer of oriented water molecules around the particles (like charges repel and resist clumping or precipitating.)
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Types of colloidal dispersions Gas/liquid Air/raw egg white Foam Carbonated beverages Liquid/liquid Oil/vinegar emulsion Solid/liquid – most common Sugar in iced tea, fruit juice solution Flour in water suspension
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Complex Colloidal Dispersion Air/liquid/solid Cake batter Bread dough
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This note was uploaded on 01/30/2011 for the course 709 201 taught by Professor Barbaratangel during the Spring '10 term at Rutgers.

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Lecture 8 - Lecture 8 Thickeners Solutions Suspensions Emulsions Gels Foods are mixtures of carbohydrates proteins fats vitamins minerals and water

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