Lecture+19

Lecture+19 - Lecture 19 Milk and Dairy Products Milk...

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Lecture 19 Milk and Dairy Products
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Milk
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Osteoporosis A condition of gradually weakening, brittle bones. The bones lose calcium and other minerals, becoming more fragile and porous.
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Risk factors of osteoporosis 1. Gender Females 4 x’s more likely to develop 1. Race Caucasians and Asians at greater risk 1. Frame size small frames start out with a smaller bone mass 1. Physical activity inactivity over long periods weakens bone regular, weight bearing activity increases calcium deposit to bone
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Risk factors, con’t 1. Age up to 35 more bone is formed than lost post menopause—rapid loss 1. Family history genetic predisposition 1. Smoking promotes bone loss 1. Calcium intake calcium intake before age 35 RDA 1 gram or more 1. Heavy drinking unknown reasons, perhaps poorer diets
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Milk Consumption Americans consumed 23 gallons per person in 2001 Per capita consumption has steadily declined since 1945 Carbonated beverages, bottled water, and coffee offset milk consumption More culturally diverse population consume diets which do not include milk
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Milk Produced by lactating mammals to feed their young Most common source in U.S. is produced by bovine animals (dairy cows) Almost perfect food—lacks vitamin D (unless fortified), vitamin C, and iron
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BST (BGH) Bovine somatotropin (bovine growth hormone) Supplement given to dairy cows to improve milk-giving efficiency NIH supported the safety of BST in 1990, followed by FDA approval for its use in the milk supply
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Pasteurization A heating process applied to foods to destroy pathogenic microorganisms
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Pasteurization of Milk Milk is a potentially hazardous food May transmit tuberculosis, scarlet fever, typhoid, diphtheria, or undulant fever Pasteurization destroy all pathogens in milk It does not destroy all bacteria
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Pasteurization Temperatures 145 o F for 30 minutes—LTLT 161 o F for 15 seconds—HTST 280 o F for 2 seconds or more— ultrapasteurization
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The date on milk A “sell by” date, not expiration Under proper refrigeration, milk should remain usable for a week past the sell by date. New York City is one of relatively few in the country that has its own dating system for fluid milk, which may legally be sold only up to 96 hours after 6 A.M. on the day after pasteurization. The rule is the same for whole, skim or low-fat fortified milk. Most fluid milk is date 10-12 days after pasteurization
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Homogenization Creates an emulsion of butterfat and water Fat does not separate in milk Milk containing fat is forced through a sieve-like opening at 2500 lb/in 2 to permanently break up the fat globules Homogenized milk is a convenience
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Composition of Milk 88% water
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Carbohydrate ~ 5% Lactose = disaccharide of glucose + galactose Creates an acid environment in GI which may serve as a basis of immunity to disease (probiotic) Acidity in GI enhances absorption of calcium May cause flatulence, abdominal cramping, or pain in individual who is lactose intolerant
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Protein 3.3% Casein = curds Lactalbumin + lactoglobin = whey
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Lecture+19 - Lecture 19 Milk and Dairy Products Milk...

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