Management Exam 2 Review

Management Exam 2 Review - Chapter 15 Communicating...

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Chapter 15: Communicating Interpersonal Communication: o Communication- transmission of information and meaning from one party to another through the use of shared symbols. It is the fundamental component of job performance and managerial effectiveness. Sender- initiates the process by conveying information to the receiver. Sender has a meaning he wants to communicate Encodes the meaning into symbols (words chosen for message) Then transmits the message (sends it) through a channel (verbally or written) Receiver- person for whom the message is intended Decodes the message (reads) it Then attempts to interpret it. He can provide feedback by encoding a message in response. Noise- interference in the system that blocks perfect understanding. Problems can occur at any of the 5 stages. o One-way vs. Two- Way Communication One way- a process in which information flows in only one direction- from the sender to the receiver with no feedback loop. Like when someone gets an e-mail but you don’t have to respond or when you get yelled at. Two way- when the receiver responds to senders, like if they are asked to respond to the email or when I explain myself to person yelling at me etc. Information is shared here. It is more accurate but more time consuming. Perception- process of receiving and interpreting information. This creates misinterpretation. Filtering- the process of withholding, ignoring, or distorting information. Senders do this when they think people want to hear a certain thing so they wont tell them everything, and receivers do this but it can cause them to miss out on important information. o Mixed Signals and Misperception People can easily misinterpret your message and mixed signals can be sent. Especially if there are cultural differences. Ways to avoid problems and make communication more effective: Ensure that the receivers attend to the message they are sending Consider the other party’s frame of reference and attempt to convey the message with that viewpoint in mind.
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Take concrete steps to minimize perceptual errors and improper signals in both sending and receiving Send consistent messages. Try to eliminate misinterpretations by saying “I am not saying X, I am saying Y” o Types of channels Oral communication- face to face discussion, telephone conversations, and formal presentations and speeches. Advantages- Questions can be asked and answered, feedback is immediate, oral communication is more persuasive and sometimes less expensive than written. Disadvantages- lead to ill-considered statements that you didn’t think about, and no permanent record Written communication- e-mails, memos, letters, reports, computer files, and other written documents. Advantages: It can be revised multiple times, permanent record that can be saved, receiver has more time to analyze. Disadvantages- no control over where or when it is read, no immediate feedback, must be longer to contain important
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Management Exam 2 Review - Chapter 15 Communicating...

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