Utilitarianism - Lecture on Utilitarianism It is better to...

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Lecture on Utilitarianism “It is better to be a human being unsatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates unsatisfied than a fool satisfied.”(John Stuart Mill) Part 1 Basic insights of Utilitarianism 1. The purpose of morality is to make the world a better place. 2. Morality is not about producing good consequences, not having good intentions. 3. We will do whatever brings great benefit to the humanity . Part 2 Two forms of Utilitarianism: Act and Rule Utilitarianism Rule Utilitarianism : -An action is right if and only if it conforms to a set of rules the general acceptance of which would produce the greatest balance of pleasure over pain for the greatest number. (John Stuart Mill) -Looks at the consequences of having everyone follow a particular rule and calculates the overall utility of accepting or rejecting the rule. Act Utilitarianism : -An action is right if and only if it produces the greatest balance of pleasure over pain for the greatest number. (Jeremy Bentham) - Looks at the consequences of each individual act and calculate utility each time the act is performed. Part 3 Contemporary Versions of Utilitarianism Preference Utilitarianism The action is best is the one that satisfies the most preferences either in themselves or according to their strength or their order of importance. Kenneth Arrow, a Noble Prize winning Stanford economist, argues that what has intrinsic value is preference satisfaction. The advantage of Arrow’s approach is that, in effect, it lets people choose for themselves what has intrinsic value. It simply defines intrinsic
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