History 1060 - HIST Midterm 2 Hernan Cortes Born 1493,...

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HIST Midterm 2 Hernan Cortes Born 1493, Spain Educated as lawyer, then decided to be soldier of fortune Distinguished in conquest of Cuba Sent by Gov. of Cuba to explore Mexican mainland Departs 1519 w/ 650 men, horses, weapons, missionaries Provisions/Armor Light, durable shatters obsidian clubs Lots of canon, swords Base in Veracruz In Mexico Founds Veracruz supply base Moves across Mexico, conquering and forming allies force increases Didn’t really fight much Monteczuma Refers to Cortez and the Spanish as Teotl. Attempts to purchase peace with tribute Negotiations/Capitulation, Nov. 1519 Montezuma allows Cortez’ force to enter without a fight Received as the Sun God, owing to prophecy Swears allegiance to Charles V of Spain Cortez founds “New Spain” Panfilo de Narvaez Velazquez, governor of Cuba covets Cortez’ new-found status and wealth Sends Panfilo de Narvaez with approx. 1000 men to capture Cortez Cortez leaves Tenochtitlan to meet the threat Battle of Zempoala, May 24, 1520 o Narvaez captured – Cortez Noche Triste June 30/July 1, 1520 Cortez’ group flees across the causeways at night Return April 1521 Reinforcements 21 flat-bottom brigandines w/guns 30 cannon 100 aquabusiers & hvy crossbowmen 20,000 allies Smallpox Tenochititlan falls Aug. 13th, 1521 o Old city demolished, Mexico City built on the ruins Why Did the Aztecs Perish? Oppressive system gave Cortez many willing allies 1
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HIST Midterm 2 Technological gap (stone culture vs. gunpowder) Ravages of diseases (smallpox) Calculation and conduct of Cortez himself Voltaire (Francois Marie Arouet) Close friend of Frederick the Great Writes on diverse topics Wry, caustic but conservative style Translated Newton, Confucius, Chinese legalism, Ideas Middle class “bourgeoisie” too small would bring stability Aristocracy too large and entrenched Distrusted democracy (Anthenian govt. system) o “propagates the idiocy of the masses” Only an enlightened monarch could bring the needed change o Changes after his disillusionment with Frederick II o "It is up to us to cultivate our garden“ – Candide John Locke NATURAL rights Rights to private property Consent of the governed Preference for legislative rule over aristocratic dictates o Need representative so democratic ideas can survive on larger scale Separation church and state English Bill of Rights (1689) Acts of Toleration Political Theory of John Locke o Two Treatises on Government (1690) o Argues against the divine right of kings o Presents the contract theory of government o Very influential in the colonies (themselves founded mainly by various contracts) Ideas led to revolutions Classical Liberalism Individual liberty State’s role is to preserve that liberty Ultimately, this is in the interest of all
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This note was uploaded on 01/29/2011 for the course HIST 1060 taught by Professor Charlottedecoster during the Spring '08 term at North Texas.

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History 1060 - HIST Midterm 2 Hernan Cortes Born 1493,...

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