Comprehensive Essays

Comprehensive Essays - Comprehensive Essay 1. Out of the...

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Comprehensive Essay 1. Out of the Enlightenment came two distinct views of the relationship between man and the state. Trace the development of these ideas from the origins discussed in class through the twentieth century. How did these ideas manifest in the eras of Colonization? In the Interwar period? After World War II? “Reason” the basis for government, culture, authority Aufkla rung (18th century term) Origins o 1637 Descartes Discourses on Method o 1687 Newton’s Principia Mathematica o 1688 Glorious Revolution in England People Montaigne Francois Marie Arouet (Voltaire) Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations Denis Dedirot: Encyclopedia Thomas Hobbes o Leviathan: Natural state of nature solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short o Social Contract Theory To avoid a life that is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short,” man agrees to give up a little liberty in exchange for limited protection Establishes a civil society Abuses in absolute authority are the price of protection. (ie, Charles I) John Locke o English Bill of Rights (1689) o Acts of Toleration o Political Theory of John Locke o Two Treatises on Government (1690) o Argues against the divine right of kings o Presents the contract theory of government o Very influential in the colonies (themselves founded mainly by various contracts) o The Self Rejects original sin Man begins empty, tabula rasa Value of man as a sovereign entity Underpinnings of classical liberalism All men created equal in the eyes of God Men are governed only by their legitimate consent Governments that do not so rule may be overthrown, in keeping with divine and natural law o Property 1
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Comprehensive Essay Comes from LABOR (effort) Property precedes government and said government cannot “dispose of the estates of the subjects arbitrarily.” Laws of Supply and Demand John-Jacques Rousseau o Two different kinds of inequality: Natural (strength); Political o Natural Man o Idea of perfectibility of man o Self-Love yields (Civil Society) competition, self-comparison with others: Hatred: urge for power. Leads to:
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Comprehensive Essays - Comprehensive Essay 1. Out of the...

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