History Midterm 1
: (Historia) Based on experience, events, people, places, times
-a chronological record of significant events (as affecting a nation or institution) often
including an explanation of their causes
-acts, ideas, or events that will or can shape the course of the future; immediate but
-a systematic account of any set of natural phenomena without particular reference to
: They study of how history is written, concerning authorship, style, perspective,
sourcing and techniques of interpretations
-Recognizes that history changes depending upon how you look at it.
-Contains values of the historian: connectedness vs. objectiveness
-Themes: Connectedness vs Objectivity; Evolution / Modernism; Technological
Determinism; Economic Determinism; Class / Gender Tension; Industrialized World vs Pre
Industrialized; Western Exceptionalism; Collectivism vs. Individualism
: Surviving records from the period in questions, also known as evidence.
-Ex. Journals, letters, tax records, court cases, artwork
-Look at strengths, weaknesses
-Objectivity, truth, why things happen
-Be aware of/ clear on perspective
: Analysis or synthesis of primary material designed to fill out the story and
answer why events occurred as they did.
-Modern Historians value objectivity.
Good histories make an argument
a convincing case that attempts to establish causality
for historical events.
-“History is written by the Victors.” Winston Churchill
Historians attempt to weigh which events and influences were most important and
critical to the outcome.
What and how you weigh the evidence makes a great difference on the resulting analysis
: the science of identification, description, classification, and interpretation of
symbols, themes, and subject matter in the visual arts. The term can also refer to the artist's use
of this imagery in a particular work. The earliest iconographical studies, published in the 16th
century, were catalogs of emblems and symbols collected from antique literature and translated
into pictorial terms for the use of artists. The most famous of these works is Cesare Ripa's
Iconologia (1593). Extensive iconographical study did not begin in Europe until the 18th
century, however, when, as a companion to archaeology, it consisted of the classification of
subjects and motifs in ancient monuments.
: Large group of people bound by cultural elements. Ethnicity; religion; language; values;
-a large body of people, associated with a particular territory, that is sufficiently