Physical Anthropology 2700

Physical Anthropology 2700 - Lecture Exam Three CHAPTER 6...

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Lecture Exam Three CHAPTER 6: PEOPLE’S PLACE IN NATURE --Every naturalist, including Carolus Linnaeus, viewed the complexity of life as a manifestation of the divine design that revealed itself at the creation --The classification of the living world was an important step in the development of Darwin’s theory TAXONOMY --Ordering one of the first steps in science Classification : System of organizing data Taxonomy : The science of classifying organisms into different categories --Classification is based on demonstrated evo relationships rather than similar appearance Linnaeus’s Classification --The basic unit of his classification system is the species he considered to be a unit of creation, unchanging and distinct >>>Binomial Nomenclature ---System of naming species that uses a double name first name alone names the genus; both names used together name the species --Chose Latin language of science, unchanging and politically neutral Binomen : Two-part name given to a species Genus : Group of similar species, example of a taxon >>>The Classification of Species Archetype : the divine plan or blueprint for a species or higher taxonomic category --Scientists of the 18 th century believed similarities in structure were due to similarities in archetype --To study the similarities between forms, and to classify them on this basis, was to reveal the divine plan The Taxonomic Hierarchy Species : Unit of classification Higher Taxa : Above the genus level, such as family, order, class, phylum, and kingdom Family : Major division of an order, consisting of closely related genera Order : Major division of a class, consisting of closely related families Class : Major division of a phylum, consisting of closely related orders Phylum: Major division of a kingdom, consisting of closely related classes; represents a basic body plan Kingdom : Major division of living organisms. All organisms are placed into one of 5 kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Fungi, Planti, Animalia --Going higher in the hierarchy, each succeeding level is defined by more generalized characteristics --Because the higher taxa encompass so much variation, the included species have few characteristics in common Determining Evolutionary Relationships Phylogeny: The evo history of a population or taxon 1
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Lecture Exam Three >>>Homologous Features --In reconstruction of a phylogeny, look for structural correspondences that are the result of inheritance from a common ancestor ( homologies ) --New structures evolve from preexisting structures >>>Homoplastic Features --Similarities that are not homologous; arise from parallelism, convergence, analogy, chance Convergence : The result of similarities in selective pressures Parallelism: Found in related species, did not exist in the common ancestor, but the common ancestor provided initial commonalities that gave direction to the evolution of the similarities Analogies: Superficially similar and serve similar functions but have no common evo relationship Cladistics
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This note was uploaded on 01/29/2011 for the course ANTH 2700 taught by Professor Dr.hill-king during the Spring '09 term at North Texas.

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Physical Anthropology 2700 - Lecture Exam Three CHAPTER 6...

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