lab FINAL - 1 LAB 7 BIO CLASSIFICATION and INTO to LIVING...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 LAB 7: BIO CLASSIFICATION and INTO to LIVING PRIMATES pg. 47-52; 135-137-- Binomial Nomenclature : Who proposed it : Carolus Linnaeus How it basically works : Each organism has a Latin binomial (“two names”): a genus and a species-- Species : Groups of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups. -- Species designation : Based on similarity or dissimilarity of morphological traits (characters) Paleospecies : Designation of fossil species Difficulties : Nothing can be determined about the interbreeding potential of paleospecies; morphological variation of fossils reflects not only geographic variation, but variation over time as well; the paucity of fossils renders designation of paleospecies difficult.--Why might the fossil record be refined from time to time :--What cladistics/classifications do : Cladistics : Based exclusively on genealogy, regardless of the time scale: a genus should include a group of species all descended from the same common ancestor; focused on derived characters Classifications : Based on evolutionary history, but takes into account the time factor and the different rates of evolution in different lineages; many start out as cladistic schemes and a time scale will be added later on--Primitive v. Derived : Derived : evolve from more primitive characters of more ancient ancestors (nails on all digits for anthropoids). Usually acquired by few members of an evolutionary group Primitive: found with phylogenetically older organisms and are usually shared with many organisms in an evo group. Complete a cladogram: Clade : Group of organisms related through a common ancestor General trends observed in primate evolution 1) pendadactyly 2) nails on all digits 3) less smell importance 4) more vision importance 5) 1 infant at a time 6) more infant dependency time 7) hand and feet prehensile 8) larger brains relative to body size 9) live in social groups of both sexes and all age grades Compare prosimians to anthropoids Prosimians are NWM, OWM, apes and humans 1) unfused mandibular symphisis 2)unfused frontal bone 3)smaller brain relative to body size 4)lack of postorbital closure, postorbital bar instead 5)retention of grooming claws on at least some digits Ex of how prosimians are more primitive: Do not have nails on all of their digits, as 2 they retain at least a couple of grooming claws. The presence of grooming claws is primitive Anthropoids have derived anatomical features 1) fused mandibular symphisis 2) fused frontal bone 3) large brain relative to body size 4) postorbital closure 5) less specialized dentition 6) less smell, more vision importance; greater color vision Kingdom Animal Phylum Chordata Class: Mammalia Order Primates Suborder Anthropoidea Infraorder Catarrhini Superfamily Hominoidea Family Hominidae Genus Homo Species sapiens 3 LAB 8: COMPARING the LIVING PRIMATES pg. 138-144 Locomotor types, primates that use each type, skeletal modifications...
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This note was uploaded on 01/29/2011 for the course ANTH 2700 taught by Professor Dr.hill-king during the Spring '09 term at North Texas.

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lab FINAL - 1 LAB 7 BIO CLASSIFICATION and INTO to LIVING...

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