Lab Notes Final

Lab Notes Final - LAB 10 Objectives -Hominids: early...

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LAB 10 Objectives -- Hominids : early members of our biological family in the Pliocene- Pleistocene (5-1 MYA) --Appear after the ape-human split --Adaptations to bipedal locomotion, changes in dental morphology (smaller canines/incisors), increase in brain size --4 proposed genera: (1) Praeanthropus (gracile bipedal Australopithecus) (2) Ardipithecus (3) Australopithecus (more robust forms, Paranthropus) (4) Homo, line leading to modern humans --Found in East and South Africa East African Hominids >>>Australopithecus anamensis --Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania; 4.17-4.07 MYA --Primitive and derived characters; bipedal, face strongly projecting; dentition more ape-like (large canines, parallel dental arcade); enamel relatively thicker than in apes, molars wider than in A. ramidus --Maybe ancestral to A. afarensis --Or, should be considered ancestral to the Hominine lineage and separate from Australopithecus afarensis or Ardipithecus ramidus. (Postcranial morphology) --Or in genus Praeanthropus because of bipedalism >>>Australopithecus afarensis --Hadar, Ethiopia, Laetoli, Tanzania; 3-4 MYA --Primitive and derived characters --Derived=adaptations of the pelvis and foot for habitual bipedal locomotion; retained longer, more curved metatarsals and pedal phalanges --Primitive=long, curved phalanges (retention from common ancestor with apes) --Savannah, trees, or both? --Cheek teeth large relative to body size; canines smaller than male apes, but sill large, pointed teeth diastema, lower first premolar is semisectorial --Cranial capacity 400 cc --Morphological diffs in arm and hand indicate that the ability to manipulate objects was more important than being arboreal >>>Paranthropus (Australopithecus) boisei --Omo in Ethiopia, Koobi For a in Kenya, Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania; 2.3-1.2 MYA --Several features in common; anterior dentition reduced (incisors/canines); molars and premolars large; thick enamel; large
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Lab Notes Final - LAB 10 Objectives -Hominids: early...

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