US History to 1865 - Lecture 1 I Origin of Native Americans 1 Original Theories a lost tribe of Israel b lost city of Atlantis 2 Bering Strait a land

US History to 1865 - Lecture 1 I Origin of Native Americans...

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Lecture 1 I. Origin of Native Americans 1. Original Theories? a. lost tribe of Israel b. lost city of Atlantis 2. Bering Strait a. land bridge- ice- looking for food, warmer climate II. Indian cultures before Columbus 1. Earliest Cultures a. hunters/gatherers b. farmers c. villagers 2. Great Extinction/Rise of Agriculture a. climate change (9000 BC) b. glaciers receded c. no big game 3.Hunters/Gatherers- gender division of labor a.men huntedb.women gathered/later farmedc.maize- Central Americad.created more time/ higher society 4. Farming/Rise of Sedentary a. agri transformation of lifestyle- 4000 BC b. “slash/burn” – used by Comanches later c. Indians didn’t own land as individuals, rather “user rights” (communal prop.) d. Large population in Americas—stone age culture—no hard metal (iron) e. 15 th century—5 to 10 mil Native Ams north of Rio Grande—total pop 50-100 mil in North America III. Major Indian Cultures in US, after 1000 BC 1. Aden-Hopewell of Ohio River Valley—800 BC to AD 600 2. Mississippi of Mississippi River Valley—AD 600 to 1500 3. Pueblo-Hohokam-Anasazi of Southwest IV. North America Mound Builders 1. oldest= Watson Break, LA (3400 BC) 2. Adena-Hopewell, ORV (500 BC-400AD) 3. Miss (1000-1700 AD) a. Cahokia—largest site 4. mounds at center—the closer, the more important 5. “pre-indian culture”—no—Indians first 6. Southwest Anasazi Pueblo a. Lived under cliffs V. Indian Cultures before Columbus, South of Rio Grande 1. Maya (300-900 AD)
2. Inca a. Cuzco, capital high in mtns. b. Quipu—record keeping c. empire—8 to 12 mil by 1500 3. Aztec and Tenochtitlan a. dominance late 1400s near Mexico City—elastic bridges for earthquakes b. by 1519, pop 5 to 20 mil
Lecture 2 European Exploration/Colonization—fueled by curiosity I. Early Norse Contacts 1. Erik the Red—Greenland—late 900s 2. Leif Eriksson—early 1000s—Vinland (Newfoundland) 3. Norse failed establishment of permanent colony a. hostile natives b. longboats—used oars, no supplies II. Changes in Modern Europe 1. national dynasties a. nation-states b. powers to tax—resources c. hereditary successions—stability

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