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GCB 223Juvenile Justice SystemChapter 1: Juvenile Justice: Definitions, Measurements and ProcessHow to Measure Juvenile Crime RatesUniform Crime Report•In 1930 Congress assigned the FBI to serve as a national clearinghouse for crime statisticsoThe UCR was established in 1930, after Congress required police to track crime•The UCR is gathered by the FBI•The UCR has two parts: Part I and Part IIoPart I are the Index Crimes•98% of the police dept in nation contribute to the UCRLimitations to the UCR•Includes only those incidents known to the police•Unreported crime not included•Accuracy adversely affected by the inconsistency of police record-keeping•Counts only the most serious offenses of a multi offense crime eventoOne of the primary criticisms of the UCR Index program was that is used a hierarchy system in which only the most serious offense in an incident was recorded. For example, if an individual was assaulted and robbed, UCR would record only one offense (the more serious offense) – the assault. The robbery would go unaccounted.The National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS)•Efforts to redesign and modernize the UCR program resulted in the development of the NIBRS in 1988•New and evolving expansion of existing UCR•Collects data on each offense committed during a reported multi-offense crime incident
GCB 223oThe NIBRS collects detailed incident information on 46 offenses representing 22 categories of crimes•Requires a brief account of each incident and arrest•This supplements or replaces the information the UCR estimatesLimitations of the NIBRS•The majority of justice departments do not use this modelSelf reported DelinquencySelf Report Surveys •Questionnaires or surveys that ask subjects to reveal their own participation in delinquent or criminal actsoSelf-report formats include one-to-one interviews, surveys and anonymous questionnaires•According to self-report studies, Juvenile Delinquency is universal •8 0– 90 % of youth participate in criminal activity by the time they are 18 years old and out of this 3% actually get caughtoThe data represent only youth who have been arrested. Many are never caught. It has been estimated that 80 to 90 percent of children in the United States younger than 18 commit some offense for which they could be arrested, but only about 3 percent are.•Over 2 million juveniles arrested annuallyKey Terms:Juvenile justice system puts emphasis on this terminology so to not limit or stigmatize the youth•Delinquent: youth who commits an act of crime that would also be a crime if it were committed by an adultoRemember the state determines the age of the delinquent (most states have age as 17)oTwo types: Status and criminal (Status offenders cannot be held over 24 hours unless they are a danger to themselves)•Juvenile Justice System: a system that provides a legal setting, in which youth can be held accountable for their behavioroThere are 3 components:Law enforcement