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Juvenile Justice Study Guide_Exam 1

Juvenile Justice Study Guide_Exam 1 - GCB 223 Juvenile...

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GCB 223 Juvenile Justice System Chapter 1: Juvenile Justice: Definitions, Measurements and Process How to Measure Juvenile Crime Rates Uniform Crime Report In 1930 Congress assigned the FBI to serve as a national clearinghouse for crime statistics o The UCR was established in 1930, after Congress required police to track crime The UCR is gathered by the FBI The UCR has two parts: Part I and Part II o Part I are the Index Crimes 98% of the police dept in nation contribute to the UCR Limitations to the UCR Includes only those incidents known to the police Unreported crime not included Accuracy adversely affected by the inconsistency of police record-keeping Counts only the most serious offenses of a multi offense crime event o One of the primary criticisms of the UCR Index program was that is used a hierarchy system in which only the most serious offense in an incident was recorded. For example, if an individual was assaulted and robbed, UCR would record only one offense (the more serious offense) – the assault. The robbery would go unaccounted. The National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) Efforts to redesign and modernize the UCR program resulted in the development of the NIBRS in 1988 New and evolving expansion of existing UCR Collects data on each offense committed during a reported multi-offense crime incident
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GCB 223 o The NIBRS collects detailed incident information on 46 offenses representing 22 categories of crimes Requires a brief account of each incident and arrest This supplements or replaces the information the UCR estimates Limitations of the NIBRS The majority of justice departments do not use this model Self reported Delinquency Self Report Surveys Questionnaires or surveys that ask subjects to reveal their own participation in delinquent or criminal acts o Self-report formats include one-to-one interviews, surveys and anonymous questionnaires According to self-report studies, Juvenile Delinquency is universal 8 0– 90 % of youth participate in criminal activity by the time they are 18 years old and out of this 3% actually get caught o The data represent only youth who have been arrested. Many are never caught. It has been estimated that 80 to 90 percent of children in the United States younger than 18 commit some offense for which they could be arrested, but only about 3 percent are. Over 2 million juveniles arrested annually Key Terms: Juvenile justice system puts emphasis on this terminology so to not limit or stigmatize the youth Delinquent: youth who commits an act of crime that would also be a crime if it were committed by an adult o Remember the state determines the age of the delinquent (most states have age as 17) o Two types: Status and criminal (Status offenders cannot be held over 24 hours unless they are a danger to themselves) Juvenile Justice System: a system that provides a legal setting, in which youth can be held accountable for their behavior o There are 3 components: Law enforcement
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