Phil Study Guide 2010

Phil Study Guide 2010 - PHILOSOPHY FINAL EXAMINATION...

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PHILOSOPHY FINAL EXAMINATION Thursday, December 9th 10:45 a.m. – 1:15 p.m. in ALC 314 Concepts and Questions/Important Terms LOGIC Concepts and Questions I. Be able to identify sentences that are propositions. a. A sentence expresses a proposition ONLY if: i. It makes sense to ask whether someone who uses it formulates a belief AND ii. It makes sense to ask whether what it says is true or false b. A proposition is a declarative descriptive sentence II. Be able to identify consistent and inconsistent sets of propositions. a. A CONSISTENT SET of propositions is one in which all the propositions are capable of being true at the same time b. Contradictions make a set inconsistent III. Be able to write arguments in conventional style. IV. Be able to identify a valid argument. Terms I. Proposition a. (1) Are the object of belief i. I belief that or I doubt that followed by your belief ii. i.e. I believe that _______________ (this is where your belief is and your belief is your proposition) b. (2) Are either true or false i. Must be able to be proven or not
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c. (3) Are expressed in sentences i. Meaning they are not the same, reason why we use the word, expressed II. consistent / inconsistent a. a consistent set of propositions is one in which all the propositions are capable of being true at the same time III. argument a. An argument is a sequence of two or more propositions of which one is designated as the conclusion and all the others of which are premises IV. premise / conclusion a. a premise stands in a special relationship to the conclusion of an argument; it provides evidence or justification for it (the conclusion) b. the conclusion of an argument is the proposition that is to be demonstrated. V. valid a. In a valid argument, the premises entail the conclusion b. In a valid argument, the truth of the premises absolutely guarantees the truth of the conclusion VI. Sound a. A sound argument offers more than just validity – it is an argument that is valid and that contains only true premises VII. A sentence expresses the proposition if: a. It makes sense to ask someone who uses it formulates a belief b. It makes sense to ask whether it says it is true or false EPISTEMOLOGY Concepts and Questions I. What different skeptical hypotheses does Descartes use to doubt different things? a. 1. Consider proposition 2. Ask how you could be wrong? 3. If yes, how? b. What he questioned? (BELOW)
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i. His senses ii. Dreaming or awake iii. God is evil or good II. What does Descartes find impossible to doubt, and why? a. That he is a thinking thing (notes) III. What must Descartes prove in order to restore his certainty in the existence of the external world? a. That God exists and is not a deceiver IV. What is Moore’s argument against skepticism? a.
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This note was uploaded on 01/29/2011 for the course PHIL 2010 taught by Professor Snyder during the Fall '06 term at Georgia State.

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Phil Study Guide 2010 - PHILOSOPHY FINAL EXAMINATION...

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