HO Fundamentals (Logic PowerPoint)

HO Fundamentals (Logic PowerPoint) - Slide 1 The...

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Slide 1 The Fundamentals of Deductive Logic Logic is the study of correct reasoning; it is essential to philosophy. ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Slide 2 Our Objective: To learn how to use the vocabulary of logic with fluency. ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Slide 3 Key Terms and Concepts: proposition argument conclusion premise (in)consistency validity counterexample soundness ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
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Slide 4 §§1-2. Propositions and Sentences ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Slide 5 Propositions: 1. are the objects of belief; 2. are either true or false; and 3. are expressed in sentences. ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Slide 6 Sentences ≠ Propositions Some sentences may express more than one proposition. ‘Christopher Columbus failed to find a passage to India in 1492, but he discovered the New World.’ Some sentences do not express propositions at all. ‘Who said, “All’s fair in love and war”?’ ‘Ow! Quit it!’ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
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Slide 7 Sentences come in different kinds: declarative (descriptive) declarative (performative) interrogative imperative exclamatory ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Slide 8 But a sentence expresses a proposition ONLY IF: it makes sense to ask whether someone who uses it formulates a belief; AND it makes sense to ask whether what it says is true or false. ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Slide 9 §3. Consistency— a property of sets of propositions ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
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Slide 10 Consistency A CONSISTENT set of propositions is one in which all the propositions are capable of being true at the same time. NOTE: In an inconsistent set of propositions, one or more of them must be false.
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