Corrections in America_Study Guide_Exam 1

Corrections in America_Study Guide_Exam 1 - Corrections in...

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Corrections in America : Study Guide Historical Development of Corrections Periods Time Frame How crime was viewed Rights The main purpose of criminal punishment Types of criminal punishment used Additional Colonial Period 1660s – 1790s Regarded as sin; All crime was put on the same level, i.e. disrespecting parents and murder Citizens accused of crimes had few rights prior to conviction and few afterward Retribution Capital Punishment (the most common); Fines; Corporal Punishment, i.e. Pillory, Whipping, Stocks, Branding Local jails held pre-trial detainees and those who owed debts (No use of long-term incarceration) Jacksonian Era 1790s – 1890s Crime was caused by irrational nature (early) and social environment (later); Developed sanctions for different levels of crime and acts that go against the legal/criminal code Citizens accused of crimes are protected by Bill of Rights in theory but not practice. Upon conviction theoretical rights were lost Deterrence Loss of liberty for length of time (penitentiary created: first time we have incarceration as a punishment); Fines Became less reliant on corporal punishment and there was a reduction in number of offenses eligible for capital punishment; Gained freedom from Great Britain (Revolutionary War); The U.S. went through a lot of changes through 1790 and 1830 (went from being 13 colonies to being a Union)
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Progressive Era 1890s – 1950s Crime was caused by social, psychological or biological factors Citizens began to see rights protected during adjudication and a few rights retained upon conviction Rehabilitation (establishes a medical model) Fines; Incarceration (softened features of penitentiary); Probation; Parole: Good time; Capital Punishment Modern Era 1950s - Present Crime is caused by social, psychological, and biological factors, as well as rational choice Citizens accused of crimes have recognized rights during adjudication and same (with limits) after conviction. Incapacitation mixed with retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, and restoration (linked with Community Service) Incarceration; Capital Punishment; Probation; Fines: Community Service; Restitution; Home confinement; Intermediate Sanctions Corrections in the South Chain Gangs became a way to control inmates in the South after the Civil War Colonial Period States in which slavery was legal resulted in segregated justice practices for those enslaved versus those who were free Slave Owners dominated state legislatures in the South and legitimized their ability to discipline slaves and protect their property rights o Slave codes enacted This became called the black codes after the Emancipation Proclamation Slaves lacked any personal rights and unless offensive behavior was directed against outsiders, owners dealt with treatment and punishment of slaves Use of capital and corporal punishment was common
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Plantation Model was utilized during this period in the South Jacksonian Era First U.S. Census in 1790 documented 600,000 slaves in the U.S. and at the eve of the Civil War
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Corrections in America_Study Guide_Exam 1 - Corrections in...

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