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Campbell 52 - Chapter52 Population Ecology Population group...

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    Chapter 52 Population Ecology
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    Characteristics of Populations Population – group of individuals of one species living in a defined region Density – number of individuals per area Dispersion – pattern of spacing among individuals in the area
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    Measuring Density How do we count all members of a population in a geographic area? Count them?
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    Counting Techniques Sample plots Take random samples and count individuals in that area Mark-recapture method N=(#marked in first capture X total # in second capture)/# of recaptures in second catch Ex. 50 hares are captured and marked on day 1 100 hares are captured on day 15 10 hares have tags on day 15
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    Patterns of Dispersion Clumped – most common pattern Organisms live in microenvironments that meet their needs Needed for mating behavior Uniform – evenly spaced Result of territorial behavior Plants shade one another Random – rare Rain forest trees
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    Demography Study of factors that affect growth and decline of populations Specifically looking at birth rates and death rates Life Tables – age-specific summary of survival pattern
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    Survivorship Curves Graphic representation of life tables
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    Reproductive Rates Focus on females – they are the reproductive units of populations Reproductive table – age specific summary of reproductive rates in a population
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    Life Histories Life history – traits that affect an organisms schedule of reproduction and survival. Types of reproduction Semelparity (big bang reproduction) Organism reproduces once, but produces lots of offspring Iteroparity (repeated reproduction)
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    Reproduction and Survival Natural selection would favor individuals that reproduce early, often, for long time Why don’t organisms do that?
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