Campbell_50 - Chapter50 IntroductiontoEcologyandthe...

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Chapter 50 Introduction to Ecology and the  Biosphere
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Ecology Ecologist study the interactions between  organisms and their environments Three questions asked by Ecologists Where do they live? Why do they live there? How many are there? Looking at Factors that affect distribution of  organisms Major types of aquatic and terrestrial biomes
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Ecology and Evolution Interactions among individuals in an environment has long  lasting affects on the evolution of that organism Events that occur in ecological time (days, weeks, years) affect  the events that occur in evolutionary time (centuries, millennia) Example:  Hawk feeding on mice
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Organisms and the Environment Evironment Abiotic Biotic Range of red  kangaroo What factors limit  the distribution What determines  its abundance
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Distribution of Organisms Organisms are often  organized into clumps Kangaroos in Australia but  not in N. America Due to continental drift and  barriers
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Factors Affecting Distribution Biogeography – study of past and present distribution of  organisms
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1 st  Factor: Dispersal Dispersal – could the  organism get there Natural range expansions Great tailed grackle Cattle egret Species transplants – way to  study if dispersal is key  factor in limiting distribution Transplant successful – limited  due to barriers (physical,  temporal, or behavioral) Actual vs. Potential Range
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Problems With Transplants African Honeybee
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Zebra Mussel First introduced in 1988
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The Tens Rule 1 out of 10 introduced  species will be successful 1 out of 10 successful  species will become so  numerous they are  considered a pest Birds are naturally  unsuccessful transplants  (starling exception)
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2 nd  Factor: Behavior and Habitat  Selection Organisms capable of inhabiting potential  ranges sometimes don’t How organisms select habitats is still not understood Egg laying behaviors of insects influence habitat  selection Some lay eggs on certain host plants
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3 rd  Factor: Biotic Factor Organism does not occupy potential range due to  predation, disease, or competition Sea urchins and Kelp
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4 th  Factor: Abiotic Factors
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2011 for the course BIO 301 taught by Professor Razi during the Spring '08 term at George Mason.

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Campbell_50 - Chapter50 IntroductiontoEcologyandthe...

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