Campbell 53 - Chapter 53 Community Ecology Community...

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Chapter 53 Community Ecology
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Community Assemblage of populations in an area or habitat, and their interactions with each other Interspecific interactions include: Competition Predation Herbivory Symbiosis disease
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Competition When two species compete for a particular resource (resulting in a negative impact on both species -/- ) Strong competition can lead to the local elimination of one of the two competing species, called Competitive Exclusion Principle
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Competitive Exclusion Principle No 2 species can occupy the same niche continuously One species will use the resource more efficiently
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Competition: Ecological Niches The sum total of a species use of the biotic and abiotic resources of an enironment An organisms profession in an environment Fundamental vs. Realized Niche
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Fundamental vs. Realized Niche
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Competition: Resource Partitioning Modification of one species niche to avoid local extinction One species begins using a different set of resources
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Competition: Character Displacement Sympatric species – those that live in the same area Allopatric species – those that live in different areas Character displacement – tendency for characters of sympatric species to be more diverse
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Predation Interaction where one species kills another and eats it (results in a +/- interaction) Many traits of individuals have evolved due to predation (eating and avoiding being eaten are prerequisites to reproductive success) Predators have claws, sharp teeth, fangs, stingers, or poisons to help catch prey Prey have hiding, fleeing, or self-defense mechanisms to help avoid predators
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Adaptations for Prey Cryptic coloration – camouflage Mechanical or chemical defenses – porcupines, skunks, poison arrow frog Animals with poisons usually have aposematic coloration (bright colors that warn predators) Batesian mimicry is when a non poisonous or non harmful animal mimics a harmful prey (false aposematic coloration)
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Herbivory When a herbivore eats part of a plant or alga (+/-) Cows, grasshoppers, and beetles Plants produce certain toxins or spines to avoid herbivory, and animals have sensors to detect which ones are toxic or innutritious
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2011 for the course BIO 301 taught by Professor Razi during the Spring '08 term at George Mason.

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Campbell 53 - Chapter 53 Community Ecology Community...

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