Project%2BManagement%2Blecture%2Bnote

Project%2BManagement%2Blecture%2Bnote - 1ProjectManagement...

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1 Project Management A project is series of related jobs usually directed toward some major output and requiring a significant period of time to perform. Examples include constructing the new business building, launching a new product, or moving a head office from one city to another. Project management is planning, directing, and controlling resources (people, equipment, material) to meet the technical, cost, and time constraints of a project. The example projects listed above are complicated tasks with many potential avenues of error due to the interdependencies of individual tasks. What we are going to cover today will help you analyze and manage large-scale projects effectively. Organizational Structure Before a project is actually begun, one must decide how the project will be tied into the parent firm. There are three types of organizational structures that may be used, each with inherent advantages and disadvantages. Pure Project The pure project structure occurs when an autonomous, self-contained team is created which works full time on the project. A DVANTAGES The project manager has full authority over the project. Team members report to one boss. They do not have to worry about dividing loyalty with a functional area manager. Lines of communication are shortened. Decisions are made quickly. Team pride, motivation, and commitment are high.
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D ISADVANTAGES Duplication of resources. Equipment and people are not shared across projects. Organizational goals and policies are ignored, since team members are often both physically and psychologically removed from headquarters. The organization falls behind in its knowledge of new technology due to weakened functional divisions. Since team members have no functional area “home”, they worry about life-after-project, and project termination is delayed. Functional Project The functional project structure occurs when the project is housed within a single functional division. A DVANTAGES A team member can work on several projects. Technical expertise is maintained within the functional area even if individuals leave the project or organization. The functional area is a home after the project is completed. Functional specialists can advance vertically. A critical mass of specialized functional area experts creates synergistic solutions to a project’s technical problems. D ISADVANTAGES Aspects of the project that are not directly related to the functional area get short-changed. Motivation of team members is often weak. Needs of the client are secondary and are responded to slowly.
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Matrix Project This form attempts to blend properties of functional and pure project structures. The project utilizes people from several different functional areas. The project manager decides what and when tasks will be performed but the functional managers control which people and technologies are used.
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