Anthro test 2 notes

Anthro test 2 notes - Anthro test 2 notes 1 Subsistence...

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Anthro test 2 notes 1. Subsistence strategies A. Cultural evolution model - models development of society that delineates a sequence of cultural change over time, attempt to explain human cultural diversity based on intensive agriculture 1. Unilineal evolution - first discussed by Darwin- theory that all cultures proceed through a series of successive stages in an attempt to reach ‘civilization’; thought that all cultures wanted to become more complex, ordered, and progressive BAD AND ETHNOCENTRIC 2. Human ecology - study of the mutual relations between people and their environment; due to ecosystem- system or functioning whole composed of physical environment and the organisms living within it 3. Environmental determinism - erroneous belief that environment determines cultural patterns 4. Neoevolutionary model - influenced by Leslie White- model of evolution based on types of technology and food production strategies, and the socio-cultural adaptations that resulted from those; measure output of energy per person to produce people’s basic needs, too many uncontrollable variables. 5. Multilinear evolution - emphasizing different development patterns for societies in different habitats; focus on the pattern of how society changed over time in a given area 6. General evolution- by Sahlins and Service- successive emergence of levels of all around development including social organization, kinship types, political organization, systems of distribution a. Archaeological evidence- look into hominid ancestors for information, used oldowan tools - African tool making tradition by breaking off pieces of rock or finding sharp animal remains, shows foraging lifestyle. Next is achulean tools - axe like found in Africa and Europe but still shows foraging lifestyle. Shows adaptations are not linear- ideas can diffuse between different cultures. b. Ethnographic data- groups with similar means of acquiring food yet different habitats turned out to have similar kinship organization, leadership, and distribution systems; proves that adaptive sociocultural features emerge as do advantages in food procurement B. Ecological model - views culture as part of a larger global ecological system with each aspect of the system interacting with all of the other parts 1. Cultural ecology - Julian Steward- study of the processes by which a society adapts to its environment including natural resources, plants and animals
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2. Optimal foraging models - how foragers optimize gathering with least expenditure of energy; must consider choices made by foragers C. Evolutionary-ecological model - human culture combines details of society within an environment and general knowledge of how cultures adapt (microview and macroview) 2. Technology - knowledge, tools and skills used by humans to manipulate their environments; culture’s technology reflects their choices; when particular choices are made consistently within a society, they become tradition , may not know why that choice is made 3. Differences in food procurement strategies
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Anthro test 2 notes - Anthro test 2 notes 1 Subsistence...

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