Drugs and Behavior final

Drugs and Behavior final - Drugs and Behavior final 1....

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Drugs and Behavior final 1. Schizophrenia A. It is a chronic, severe and disabling brain disorder with disturbances in thought, self- awareness, perception, affect (emotion), volition (choices), and social interactions sometimes characterized by hearing voices that others don’t hear, believing that others are broadcasting their thoughts to the world, or being convinced that others are plotting to harm them 1. History- defined by Emil Kraeplin in 1887 as a group of psychoses characterized by a distinct cognitive process such as dementia and early onset 2. Separated from manic-depressive psychosis and Alzheimer’s because they don’t have chronic cycles 3. Eugen Beuler 1911- schizophrenia from Greek- split and mind- highlights the fact that the disorder produces a severe fragmentation of thinking and personality- dissociative process B. Effects 1-1.5% of world’s population regardless of variables, 2.4 million Americans, men and women equally, 40-50% of long term psychotic patients; onset occurs during late adolescence or early adulthood C. Lifetime of disability and unremitting social and occupational impairment of function; creates a substantial emotional and economic burden on individuals with the illness, their families, and society; most chronic, debilitating and costly mental illness; 65$ billion per year; 30% of money goes to direct treatment such as medication, rest goes to hospitals, social services and criminal justice system; 1/3 of homeless population in US has untreated schiz or manic depression; 20% of US inmates have a mental illness and 5% are actively psychotic at a given time D. Affecting brain regions: 1. Positive symptoms: added behavior: delusions, hallucinations, thought disorders 2. Negative symptoms: taken away: decrease motivation, flat affect- diminished emotional expression 3. Cognitive deficits: impaired executive functioning- testing through ‘Stroop Test’ which lists colors printed in incorrectly matching color and asked to say either what color the printing is, attention, working memory through ‘phonebook task’ to test load where average adults remember 5-6 things a. Present in individuals with genetic risk through testing with identical twins b. Precede the onset of psychosis c. Predictor of long-term outcome with medication
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d. Persistent during illness and may get worse E. Subtypes: 1. Catatonic- extreme inactivity or activity that’s disconnected from their environment or encounters with other people that last for minutes or up to hours 2. Hebephrenic- disorganized thinking, grossly disorganized behavior, and absent or inappropriate emotional expression that significantly disrupts a person’s ability to function in regular daily activities and interactions with other people 3. Paranoid- delusions of grandeur or persecution, auditory hallucinations 4. Undifferentiated- cases not meeting other subtypes F. Diagnosis: need to rule out other diseases such as underlying medical conditions like HIV, syphilis or brain damage, mental retardation, other mental disorders such as
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Drugs and Behavior final - Drugs and Behavior final 1....

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