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Developmental psych notes test 2

Developmental psych notes test 2 - Developmental psych...

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Developmental psych notes test 2 1. Effects on pregnancy A. Radiation- first seen after bombing Japan in WWII- lead to naturally aborted or physical/psychological disabilities when affected by high dose. Low dose includes x-rays, may be dangerous especially if x-ray of just abdomen area. MRI- don’t know long term effects yet so if pregnant means rare testing. B. Emotions- if almost tortured stressful environment can cause cleft palate in rats. Minimal/everyday stress has minor effects. Depends what stress means to each person C. Men- fertility and sperm content matters 1. Alcohol- decrease fertility, increase abuse of female 2. Drugs- effect genetics but most time will be less successful at impregnating (steroids and transplant patient?) 3. Occupational exposure to chemicals- increased lead exposure will decrease fertility 4. STD- many are given to women. Syphilis- can be caught by baby during birth which leads to blindness. Herpes- newborn will become very sick and mother will only have c-section. HIV- babies rarely get the disease due to a protective factor, if so treated immediately to prevent AIDS 5. Genetic counseling D. Education- very few prevention programs, especially focus on teenage health education in high schools. Must also focus on the most important behaviors. 2. Birth Controversies A. Cesarean Section- have increased in popularity to 20-30%, much higher in US then other countries. 1. Effect on baby- avoid cord getting wrapped around neck which can cause breathing to stop.
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2. Effect on mother- more time in the hospital and riskier because it is an operation- risk disease, blood clots and infections. Vaginal births are healthier for both. 3. Long term risks- must have only c-sections after first initial one due to incision in the muscle, won’t be strong enough to push contractions during vaginal birth. Much greater long term risks then rewards. 4. Biggest issue- economics. More expensive and more time in recovery. OBGYN malpractice rates are high due to commonly being sued. Less risk in c-section of anything going wrong. Doctors spend less time waiting for labor, can do more births in one day. 5. Europe- better infant mortality rates only 10-15% c-sections and only for medical reasons B. Fetal Monitoring- no person constantly monitoring, detect heart rate of baby, if sudden change then doctor will know. However, this is common during labor and the baby will commonly still be fine, may freak some mothers out if nothing is done immediately. Doctor is then inclined to do c-section because wants to avoid rare instances- known as defensive medicine. C. Birth Position- most common and natural is squatting which uses gravity for help. Birth chair is reasonable Western idea but not implemented. US has less squatting muscles then ancient peoples so developed supine position- laying on back with feet up and open. Alternative Birth Centers allow choice.
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