test 3 - 1. A, B 2. Language A. Methods used for studying-...

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1. A, B 2. Language A. Methods used for studying- parental reports as a primary means only problem is questioning accuracy; natural observations used as diaries to track details and finding patterns through those; experiments like using made up words and testing comprehension of plural or past tense B. Phoneme development- determines when babies can hear basic sounds such as ‘hairy vs. harry’- this explains why babies have receptive language before they develop productive language C. Speech perception for newborns- used with High Amplitude Sucking Method, Dr. P. Eimas studied the differences heard between B and P; Japanese babies hear difference between R and L but lose that ability before age 1 due to dendritic pruning; inability to hear correctly causes most reading problems D. Dialect- can hear differences at 10 to 12 months of dialects between close areas such as north and south due to specialization- unconscious tuning into sound of own languages dialects; not due to parental dialects but more geared towards environmental dialect of the people around that baby E. Producing sounds- 1. Crying leads to cooing leads to babbling leads to patterned speech 2. Cooing at 1 month old with no use of lips or tongue to produce mostly vowel sounds; then use lips around 2 and 3 months old to make consonant and vowel sounds such as babbling; babble becomes specific to language due to different sounds for each language (American vs. German); can increase frequency of babbling with reinforcement and conditioning; babbling continues even after speaking first word at 1 year old; functions to learn how to use the articular system such as tongue, lips, vocal cords etc. this is genetic 3. Deaf babies of deaf parents will still coo but also use hand movements that are an attempt at sign language; universal sounds of cooing and babbling regardless of the native language; cultural differences emerge around 8 months old- begin to ‘tune in’ to their native language
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4. From front to back of mouth when learning to pronounce consonants (B to K) 5. From back to front of mouth when learning to pronounce vowels (ah to eh) F. Early semantic development- learn meaning of word before production occurs at 10 months, mostly due to hearing caregiver who uses direct words about things that are in easy sight; ability to follow references through following line of sight and pointing at what you are talking about, inability shows sign of autism; playing nonverbal games; take on more than their share of a conversation to show pauses and appropriate responses; end sentence with higher pitch which will highlight important words; when researchers developed a new language and had babies listen to that for a while, they could pick out words, and then tuned out during a second playing of the tape because they already learned the words; understand that new word stands for the whole object and not just part; learn nouns easier then verbs because verbs have more cognitive meaning and is thus more complex
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test 3 - 1. A, B 2. Language A. Methods used for studying-...

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