1/27/11Material and Nonmaterial Social Facts•Material social fact-architecture; laws; forms of technology; those things that are directly observable•Non-material social fact-the bulk of Durkheim’s work focuses on this type of social fact. •He says that although non-material facts are found in the minds of
1/27/11Why Language is a social fact•Language is also a social fact. How so?•it is external to the individual-although we use it, we didn’t create it. It doesn’t emanate from our beings
1/27/114 types of nonmaterial sfMorality- Morality is a social fact because it can be studied scientifically, is external to and coercive of the personHe believed that morality led to greater freedom because it released the individual from the urge to continually seek self-gratificationWithout morality, the individual will
1/27/114 types of nonmaterial sf•Collective conscience-totality of people’s beliefs, thoughts, and feelings; shared understandings, norms, and beliefsRooted in society and not the individual; strengthened through interaction and socialization
1/27/114 types of nonmaterial sf--Collective representations-representations of ideas;Some examples include religious symbols, myths and legends;Representations reflect the norms, values, and beliefsFor example, Uncle Sam might reflect the government, THE MAN, etc.
1/27/114 types of nonmaterial sf•Social Currents-great waves of emotion, certain ideas driven by these emotions, that are produced in large gatherings; sets of meanings shared by groups•Subject to change quickly•Interaction is key to society being subject to social currents
1/27/11Mechanical Solidarity•These two types reflect how society is held together, how it remains cohesive.