Final Exam Vocabulary List

Final Exam Vocabulary List - F inal Exam Vocabulary List...

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Final Exam Vocabulary List Affirmative Action: Programs designed to enhance opportunities for groups that have suffered discrimination in the past (chap 15) Ambassadors: The head of a diplomatic delegation to a major foreign country (chap 12) Balancing Doctrine: The principle enunciated by the courts that freedom of speech must be balanced against other competing public interests (chap 14) Bay of Pigs: Location of CIA- supported effort by Cuban exiles in 1961 to invade Cuba and overthrow Fidel Castro (Chap 12) Brief: Written arguments presented to a court by layers on behalf of clients (Chap 13) Brown Vs Board of Education of Topeka Kansas: Supreme Court Decision (1954) declaring racial segregation in schools unconstitutional (Chap 15) Bully Pulpit: A description of the presidency emphasizing opportunities to preach to voters on behalf of good policy. (Chap 11) Bureaucracy: Hierarchical organization designed to perform a particular set of tasks. (Chap 12) Cabinet: Top Administration officials; mostly heads of executive branch departments (Chap 11) Chief Justice: Head of the Supreme Court (Chap 13) Chief of Staff: Head of White House staff, usually in continuous contact with the president (Chap 11) Circuit Court of Appeals: Court to whom decisions by federal district courts are appealed (Chap 13) Civil Code: Law regulating relations among individuals. Alleged violators are sued by presumed victims, w ho ask courts to award damages and otherwise offer relief. Civil Disobedience: A peaceful violation of law designed to dramatize injustice. (Chap 15)
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Civil Liberties: Fundamental freedoms that protect a people from their government. (Chap 14) Civil Rights: Guarantees to equal treatment under the law (Chap 15) Civil Rights Amendments: The Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution, designed to abolish slavery and secure rights for freemen. (Chap 14) Civil Service: A system that protects government employees from losing their jobs when elected offices change hands. (Chap 12) Class Action suit: Suit brought on behalf of all individuals in a particular category, whether or not they are actually participating in the suit. (Chap 13) Clear and Present Danger doctrine: The principle that people should have freedom of speech unless their language poses a direct threat that lawmakers have the authority to prevent (Chap 14) Cold War: The 43-year period (1946-1989) during which the U.S and the Soviet Union threatened one another with mutual destruction. (Chap 12) Concurring Opinion: A written opinion prepared by judges who vote with the majority but who wish to disagree with or elaborate on some aspect of the majority opinion. (Chap 13) Containment: U.S. policy that attempted to stop the spread of communism in the expectation that this system of government would eventually collapse on its own. (Chap 12) Criminal Code: Law regulating relations between individual and society. Alleged violators are prosecuted by government (Chap 13) De Facto Segregation: Segregation that occurs as the result of private decisions. (Chap 15)
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Final Exam Vocabulary List - F inal Exam Vocabulary List...

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