8-24 Intro and hx

8-24 Intro and hx - Clinical Psychology Clinical Psych 486...

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Unformatted text preview: Clinical Psychology Clinical Psych 486 Psych Introduction and History Introduction Clinical Psychology Clinical Activity—divide into groups of three or Activity—divide four and… four • Introduce yourselves. • Explain why you (as an individual) are Explain taking this class. • As a group, come up with three things As you want to get out of taking this course (e.g., questions answered or topics addressed). What Is Clinical Psychology? What A clinical psychologist is someone involved in clinical “applying psych principles to the problems of individuals” (Trull, 2005, pg. 26). Clinical psychology is… • Applied—attempts to use knowledge gained attempts from research to make positive changes in the lives of others. • Ideographic rather than nomothetic— focused more on individual differences than focused determining general principles of behavior. determining What Is Clinical Psychology? What • Grounded in the scientific method— uses objective observation and uses experimentation to measure and understand reality. • Focused on pathology—concerned concerned with “problems in living” (e.g., phobias, depression) rather than normal functioning. normal What Is Clinical Psychology? What Qualities of a clinical psychologist— Qualities • Strong verbal communication skills— speaking and writing. • Acceptance of the scientific method Acceptance as a means of understanding reality. • Appropriate degree of empathy— enough compassion to inform good enough care without becoming overwhelmed. care What Is Clinical Psychology? What Qualities of a clinical psychologist (cont.) — • Good self- care skills. • No emotional or behavioral conditions No that would interfere with work—e.g., that e.g., active substance abuse. active • We choose the field for a reason— history of mental illness or controlled history mental illness not an automatic disqualifier. What Is Clinical Psychology? What Activities of a clinical psychologist include… Activities • Psychotherapy— – Usually individual therapy. Usually – Most common activity reported by clinical Most psychologists. – May be less involvement in future due to May competition from other professions. • Assessment—of behavior, of psychopathology, interests, intelligence, etc. using interviews, observation, and testing to inform decision-making/ interventions. What Is Clinical Psychology? What Activities of a clinical psychologist include… Activities • Clinical supervision—usually 1:1 or in small usually groups with trainees or other professionals (e.g., master’s level clinicians). • Research— – Most graduate programs involve Most significant research training. significant – A minority of clinical psychologists minority produces the majority of clinical research. research. What Is Clinical Psychology? What Activities of a clinical psychologist Activities include… • Teaching—50% employed at least 50% part-time at colleges and universities. part-time • Consultation—to increase the to effectiveness of others by imparting particular expertise. • Administration—may end up in may leadership positions due to level of education. Demographic Data Demographic Among 170,000 clinical psychologists… • In 2005, 72% of new graduates of PhD and In PsyD programs were women. • About 17% are members of ethnic minority About groups. • 40% are self-employed in private practice or 40% as consultants. as • Other employment settings include health Other care (e.g., hospitals, mental health and primary care clinics), community agencies, universities, and schools. • Mean salary for an experienced person is Mean about $80,000. Related Professions Related Counseling psychology— Counseling • Training similar to clinical, but focused Training more on problems in adjustment than major pathology. pathology. • In Nebraska, those with PhDs receive same In license and tend to work in same settings as clinical psychologists. as School psychology— School • Provide educational testing and remediation Provide in school settings. • Most have masters degree, some doctoral. • Mean salary is $60,000. Mean Related Professions Related Psychiatry—medical specialty focused on treatment of Psychiatry—medical psychological disorders. • Training—MD followed by one-year general Training—MD internship and three year psychiatry residence. internship • Generally focused on biological understanding of Generally psychopathology. psychopathology. • May engage in psychotherapy, but spend large May majority of time on medication management, some on case supervision. on • Top of “food chain” in mental health—average Top annual salary $200,000. annual Related Professions Related Social work— Social • Licensed and usually trained at the masters Licensed level. • Historically have worked with lower income/ disenfranchised members of society doing disenfranchised casework (e.g., assistance with housing, food stamps, etc.) food • Increasingly engaged in providing Increasingly • Average salary $34-47,000. Average Related Professions Related Masters in psychology, counseling, or marriage and Masters family therapy— • Two years of coursework plus 1-2 years supervised Two experience (3000 hours in state of NE). experience • Great variety in quality of training. • Depending on state laws and insurance regulations Depending may not be able to treat “major mental illness” (e.g., schizophrenia, some anxiety and mood disorders) unless supervised by or consulting with a clinical psychologist. • Just achieved independent practice in NE if can Just prove have sufficient training in major mental illness. • Average salary $32-54,000. Related Professions Related Licensed drug and alcohol counselor— • In NE, requires high school diploma or GED • 270 hours of coursework, 300 hours of training in 270 interventions, and 6,000 hours of supervised experience (less if have bachelors or masters degree). BA or BS in psychology—may work in… BA • Human services—e.g., psychiatric technician, e.g., academic advisor. academic • Government—e.g., probation officer, child e.g., protective services. protective • Business—e.g., human resources, retail. • Salary potential—$18-42,000. Historical Roots of Clinical Psychology Clinical Clinical psychology is a product of the political and Clinical social environment in which it is practiced. social • Prehistory—mental illness seen as the result of mental supernatural forces, and thus treated through supernatural means (e.g., wearing amulets). amulets). • Greeks—birth of philosophy and medicine lead to birth psychological and physical interventions. • Middle Ages— political unrest led to loss of Middle learning; mentally ill seen as possessed or sinful. • Renaissance—greater prosperity led to greater greater focus on science; psychological and medical treatments re-emerged. Historical Roots of Clinical Psychology Clinical Enlightenment—interest in the possibility Enlightenment—interest science could be used to improve the human condition. • Phillipe Pinel (1745-1826)—horrified by horrified conditions in overcrowded hospitals, pioneered moral treatment for mental illness. • Dorothea Dix (1802-1887)—pioneered pioneered hospital movement in US. Historical Roots of Clinical Psychology Clinical Beginnings of assessment and diagnosis— Beginnings • Francis Galton (1822-1911)—pioneered pioneered measurement of individual differences. measurement • James McKeen Cattell (1860-1944)— James pioneered psychological testing, including awareness of need for standardized measurement. measurement. • Emil Kraeplin (1855-1926)—published first published text on psychiatry, including classification of different types of schizophrenia. Birth of Clinical Psychology Birth Lightner Witmer— Lightner • Opened the first Psychological Clinic in Opened 1896, focusing primarily on children with behavioral problems. behavioral • Taught the first course in clinical Taught psychology, founded the first journal (The psychology, The Psychological Clinic). Psychological • Developed the first clinical psychology Developed training program, enrolling many women. training Alfred Binet—developed the first normreferenced and valid intelligent (IQ) test. Childhood of Clinical Psychology Childhood World War I— • Created the need to assess the intelligence Created of army recruits/draftees—resulted in Army Alpha (verbal) and Army Beta tests Alpha Army (nonverbal, for use with non-English speakers). • Robert Woodworth created Army Robert Psychoneurotic Inventory—first Psychoneurotic first questionnaire designed to assess psychopathology. Childhood of Clinical Psychology Childhood Between the wars— assessment continues to Between dominate the profession, as psychotherapy is considered the domain of psychiatrists. • Emergence of projective tests —designed to Emergence projective designed evaluate unconscious processes (went beyond observable processes and characteristics). characteristics). – – 1921: Herman Rorschach’s inkblot test. 1921: Rorschach 1935: Thematic Apperception Test (Christiana 1935: Morgan and Henry Murray). Childhood of Clinical Psychology Childhood Between the wars—assessment using Between tests. • Stanford Binet Scale (1937)—developed by developed Lewis Termin and Maud Merrill to measure intelligence in ages 2 to adult. intelligence • Wechsler Bellevue Intelligence Scale (1939) —first intelligence test developed first specifically for adults. • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Minnesota Inventory (1943)— most used clinical assessment tool in history. Childhood of Clinical Psychology Childhood Between the wars—beginnings of Between behavior therapy. behavior • Watson + Raynor=Little Albert + Watson Bunny. • Mary Cover Jones pioneered Mary graduated exposure for bunny fear (sadly, not with Little Albert). Adolescence of Clinical Psychology Adolescence World War II—created the need for many World more mental health professionals. • Provided funding for training (NIMH Provided grants). grants). • Clinical psychology recognized as an Clinical independent profession. • Increased acceptance of clinical Increased psychologists being involved in therapy. Adolescence of Clinical Psychology Adolescence In aftermath of war, new approaches to therapy In emerged. • Carl Rogers—developed client-centerd therapy as an alternative to psychodynamic therapy approaches. approaches. • Joseph Wolpe—developed systematic developed desensitization to treat traumatized WWII veterans. veterans. • Albert Ellis and Joseph Beck—developed developed cognitive treatments for depression. for Adolescence of Clinical Psychology Adolescence Expansion of clinical psychology created a Expansion need to define the profession. • Boulder (1949)—NIMH conference at which Boulder it was determined that clinical psychologists should… psychologists – Be trained in university psych departments. – Be scientists first, clinicians second (“scientistpractitioner” model). – Complete one-year full-time internship. – Be trained in diagnosis, research, and therapy. Be – Complete a piece of original research (the Complete dissertation). dissertation). Adolescence of Clinical Psychology Adolescence Defining the profession (cont.)— Defining • Vail Conference (1974)—recommended looseing Vail the requirements for training of clinical psychologists. psychologists. – Endorsed the Psy.D.—“scholar-practitioner” model. model. – Proposed masters-level practitioners should be Proposed able to use title “psychologist.” able • Schism (1988)—due to perceptions APA had Schism become too focused on protecting the interests of clinicians in practice, academic psychologists withdrew to form own association. withdrew ...
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