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Unformatted text preview: Variations in Sexual Variations in Sexual Expression Intimacy vs Sex Intimacy vs Sex Intimate relationships personal relationships involving dif levels of life sharing; a strong physical, emotional, mental, spiritual, and/or social closeness; may or may not include sexual intimacy. Healthy intimate relationships have a pos effect on life; unhealthy relationships can have a negative impact on well being. Intimacy depends on several factors, including the following: Familiarity; Feelings (e.g., affection, caring, concern, love); Freedom from fear, coercion, or intimidation; Honesty; Open communication; Respect; Security; Trust Intimacy vs Sex Intimacy vs Sex Intimate relationships often include talking and sharing feelings, spending time with each other, and participating in common interests and activities together. Sexual intimacy can involve a wide range of sexual behaviors, including touching (e.g., holding hands, hugging, cuddling, fondling), and kissing, and sexual intercourse. Types of Sex Types of Sex Vaginal Sex Vaginal Sex Vaginal sex (coitus) involves the insertion of the male sex organ (penis) into the female sex organ (vagina). Vaginal intercourse is the usual method for producing offspring In heterosexuals, vaginal sex is the most common type of sexual intercourse Safer Vaginal Sex Safer Vaginal Sex Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS, can be spread through this sexual activity. According to the CDC, sexual intercourse is the most common method of HIV transmission in many parts of the world. The only way to avoid pregnancy and prevent the spread of STDs (e.g., genital herpes, genital warts, HIV) w/certainty is to refrain from sexual intercourse (abstinence). Before having vaginal sex, partners should be honest with each other about their sexual and medical history. To reduce the risk for STDs and help avoid pregnancy, a latex condom with a waterbased lubricant should be used for sexual intercourse. Condoms reduce the risk for STD transmission and for pregnancy, but they are not 100% effective. Safer vaginal sex also involves using other forms of contraception (e.g., birth control pills) if pregnancy is not desired. Oral Sex Oral Sex Using the mouth, including the lips, tongue, and teeth, to stimulate a sexual partner's genitals. Often involves kissing, licking, sucking, nibbling Oral sex is performed by heterosexual and homosexual couples Fellatio involves using the mouth to stimulate the penis and scrotum. Cunnilingus involves using the mouth to stimulate the vulva, the clitoris, and the vaginal opening. Oral sex that involves the anus is called analingus Oral sex is an important part of many healthy sexual relationships; however, as with other sexual behaviors, it is important to practice safer oral sex to reduce the risk for sexually transmitted disease (STD) and HIV/AIDS. Oral sex performed on a male called fellatio; on a female cunnilingus Safer Oral Sex Safer Oral Sex Avoid oral sex w/open sores (e.g., cold sores), cuts, or broken skin in the mouth or genital area Avoid oral sex when one partner has an active STI (e.g., genital herpes, genital warts) Wait at least 30 minutes after brushing the teeth, flossing the teeth, or having dental work before performing oral sex (bc of gum irritation and bleeding) Wear a latex condom, female condom, or a dental dam (flat, latex barrier worn in the mouth) Withdraw the penis from the sexual partner's mouth prior to ejaculation Oral sex btw consenting sexual partners often is extremely pleasurable and satisfying. In fact, for many women, cunnilingus provides just the right amount of stimulation to produce orgasm. Oral sex does not carry a risk for pregnancy. Anal Sex Anal Sex The anus is the outlet of the lower portion of the colon (i.e., the rectum) through which fecal matter is eliminated from the body. For many men and women, the anus also is a sexual organ. Insertion of the male sex organ (penis), fingers, or sex toys (e.g., vibrator, dildo) into the anus Stimulation of the anus using the mouth (called analingus), fingers, or sex toys Using an enema (introduction of fluid into the rectum through the anus) to provide sexual stimulation Safer Anal Sex Safer Anal Sex Unprotected anal intercourse (i.e., sex without the use of a condom) is considered to be a highrisk sexual behavior. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS, can be spread through anal sex. Safer anal sex involves using a latex condom for anal intercourse and a waterbased lubricant for sexual activity that involves penetration of the anus. Also, the anus should be gently cleansed prior to anal sex and sexual partners should avoid contact between any object that has had contact with the anal area (e.g., fingers, penis, sex toy) and the mouth or vagina. Paraphilias Paraphilias Some sexual inclinations and behaviors are unusual, and some are just against the law. The variations and The variations and deviations of human sexual desire have no boundaries… Sexual Variations Sexual Variations Have existed and been recorded for millennia in different parts of the world. Early Buddhist texts contain numerous references to sexually variant behaviors among monastic communities over 2000 years ago. These behaviors included sexual activity with animals and sexual interest in corpses. Sexual Variations Sexual Variations Those behaviors that are not statistically typical of american sex behaviors A case example of fetishism from A case example of fetishism from KrafftEbing (1887) Z began to masturbate at the age of 12. From that time he could not see a woman’s handkerchief without having orgasm and ejaculation. He was irresistibly compelled to possess himself of it. At that time he was a choir boy and used the handkerchiefs to masturbate within the bell tower close to the choir. But he chose only such handkerchiefs as had black and white borders or violet stripes running through them. At age 15, he had coitus. Later on he married. As a rule, he was potent only when he wound such a handkerchief around his penis. Often he preferred coitus between the thighs of a woman where he had placed a handkerchief. Whenever he espied a handkerchief, he did not rest until he was in possession of it. He always had a number of them in his pockets and around his penis Terminology Terminology
Perversion Carries a clear value judgment Suggests behaviors that are “twisted” or “sick” in some way Refers to deviant sexual behaviors preferred over heterosexual intercourse Deviance Behavior that is disapproved of by society Suggests willful violation of what society deems normal Terminology Terminology
Atypical Sexual Expression Refers to anything not typical of most people most of the time “Unusual” but value free Not common, but not bizarre or illegal Sexual Variation Sexual behaviors engaged in by the minority in a particular society Generally not wide disapproval Refers to recurrent, persistent, strong, atypical sexual urges associated with highly distracting sexual fantasies These urges need to involve:
nonhuman objects; suffering or humiliation of self or partner; or ageinappropriate or nonconsenting adults Terminology Terminology Paraphilia Needs to last for period of 6 months Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSMIV represents the final wording on criteria and symptoms of diagnosis Identified the diagnostic features of paraphilias Differs from atypical sexual expression or sexual variation in that the atypical fantasies and urges are usually necessary to experience sexual excitement Someone with a DSMIV paraphilia will have difficulty achieving sexual arousal, gratification, and/or orgasm WITHOUT engaging in the atypical behavior The “abnormal” component becomes a “normal” and necessary aspect of the person’s sexual behaviors. “Normal” Examples of Continuum Examples of Continuum
Atypical (kinky) Streaks at party Paraphilia Needs to flash others Wears clothes Masturbates Sometimes with finger Can’t masturbate without in anus dildo in anus Likes high heels Likes to have sex wearing heels Enjoys occasional swat on the butt Must rub high heels on vulva for orgasm Has to be paddled hard and fast during sex Spanking ended in childhood Causes of Paraphilias Causes of Paraphilias Not simple, clear, or straightforward Unclear if they are caused or contributed to by a single, unusual sexual experience Usually learned over a long period of time Different theories about the etiology of the paraphilias Some have clear victims (exhibitionism, voyeurism, pedophilia), but some do not (fetishism, troilism) Exhibitionism Exhibitionism Definition – obtaining sexual arousal and gratification from exposing the genitals to an unsuspecting and unwilling person Want shock, surprise, or embarrassment in victims Best to remain calm/indifferent if you’re the victim Exhibitionism Exhibitionism Almost always heterosexual males About 50% of women have experienced undesired “flashing” of the genitals of another man About 1/3rd of all reported sex offenses involve this (but its estimated that only about 20% of incidents are reported to police) Types of Exhibitionism Types of Exhibitionism Anasyrma lifting up the skirt not wearing underwear to expose genitals. Flashing is chiefly the momentary display of bare female breasts by a woman lifting of the shirt and/or bra;, or brief exposure of the genitalia. Martymachlia which involves sexual attraction to having others watch the execution of a sexual act. Mooningdisplay of bare buttocks; gendered double standard Males, the act is most often done for the sake of humor, disparagement, and/or mockery than for sexual excitement, Females, the reverse tends to be true, and sexual arousal (or attention) of those mooned is the intent. Streaking is the act of taking off one's clothes and running nude through a public place. Exhibitionism Exhibitionism Abel and Rouleau (1990), 50% of exhibitionists reported that they began exposing themselves to others before they turned 18. Generally, men older than 40 less likely than younger men. Usually, the targets of exhibitionists are children and women More than 50% of exhibitionists studied were married, little is known about the prevalence of this paraphilia in the gen pop. A variety of psychological disorders are assoc w exhibitionism, but none specifically and consistently (Murphy, 1997). Not known if relationship exists btw exhibitionism & other criminal activities. No specific developmental/family factors yet identified as consistent causes of exhibitionistic behavior Too few consistent data are available to create a profile of exhibitionists. Exhibitionism Exhibitionism The aspect of risk taking is important – It’s as if they want to be caught Most repeat their behavior in the same place The average exhibitionist will report 3 arrests over a seven year period Some will be erect during exposure; sometimes the excitement causes orgasm Exhibitionism Exhibitionism If not, they will go masturbate and think of the thrill of having just exposed themselves to someone After they feel guilt and shame and say they will never do it again But, they do – unable to control the urges Reasons??? Exhibitionism Exhibitionism Inability to control impulses and urges Relieves feelings of anxiety (momentarily) Attention seeking Need to feel powerful Telephone Scatologia – obscene phone calls Exhibitionism Exhibitionism 1 million calls per year reported in the US Again, the purpose is to shock the victim Often seem among men who have strong feelings of insecurity and inadequacy May also reflect negative attitudes toward women Socially sanctioned exhibitionism
Nude sunbathing or “streaking” Nude dancers No sexual arousal is obtained Exhibitionism Exhibitionism Exhibitionism Exhibitionism People who are exhibitionistic Stripping for partner Nudists Not doing this to unsuspecting people Voyeurism Voyeurism Definition – obtaining sexual arousal and gratification from watching an unsuspecting person (or persons) undressing or engaged in sexual activity Three requirements Those observed must be strangers They must not consent to being observed The voyeur must be “at risk” while observing Voyeurism Voyeurism 33% of men and 16% of women find watching others do sexual things appealing – this is not a voyeurism paraphilia Sense of danger and violating someone’s privacy provide excitement Voyeur masturbates while observing Going to nudist camps or watching strippers does not satisfy the voyeur Keep in mind that the second most common appealing sexual practice is watching a partner undress – this is NORMAL Voyeurism Voyeurism More common among males 90% of cases males Typically not dangerous, unless… Voyeurism Voyeurism Break into building to watch victim Try to get attention of victim Characteristics of Voyeurs Characteristics of Voyeurs Avg voyeur ~ 24 yrs old at 1st conviction (but doing this since ~15) Have watched over 200 people No drugs or alcohol are involved Tend to be less sexually experienced, than those w/other sexual mental d/os Less likely to be married Have low selfesteem Likely to be youngest child, good parental relationships, bad peer High tech equipment, including camera phones, makes this easier for the voyeur Voyeurism Voyeurism Voyeurism stats Voyeurism stats
In 2002, camera phone sales accounted for 3.3% of all cell phones sold. In 2008, was expected 50% of all cell phones sold will be cameraphones. Currently, the upperend camera phones take more than just snapshots, but fullmotion videos can be sent to Spies or Voyeurs around the world in a matter of minutes. The Video Voyeurism Prevention Act (2004), passed by Congress, will make it illegal to videotape, photograph, film, broadcast or record a naked person or someone in underwear anyplace where a "reasonable person would believe that he or she could disrobe in privacy." “Commercialized voyeurism” Prostitution houses with secret observation Voyeurism “clubs” Videotaping voyeuristic activities Voyeuristic Industry Voyeuristic Industry Sometimes acts recorded by consenting persons are obtained and distributed Videotaping voyeuristic activities Videotaping voyeuristic activities Portable video cameras enormous impact on the behavior of voyeurs. Simon (1997) published a psychological & legal analysis of this phenomenon. video voyeurs are males, usually under age 40, who operate alone and are acquaintances, friends, coworkers, or neighbors of their victims. Most cases, video equipment in dressing rooms, restrooms, and bedrooms. When people (usually women) discover they have been videotaped horrified, humiliated, mortified, and extremely fearful; their perceptions of privacy, trust, and safety in their environments are totally violated Situation is worse when victim discovers copies have been made/distributed. Psychological reactions are more pronounced when victim videotaped engaging in private urination/defecation/sexual activity than in some state of undress and alone. Young girls, extremely sensitive about bodies and development, are often profoundly distressed upon discovering having been videotaped. Video voyeurism prosecuted in a civil suit, compensatory damages may result A variation of voyeurism Definition Sexual arousal from watching one’s partner have sex with someone else, or in the presence of another Also refers to three (or more) people sharing sexual activities (e.g., menage a trois) Troilism Troilism Troilism Troilism Powerful visual component to these activities Pleasure comes from watching more than doing Often involves “swinging” Again, this is a problem only if it becomes necessary for sexual arousal Comarital sex swinging involves usually married couples who swap partners for sexual intercourse. Unmarried couples also participate in swinging, but most of what is known about this phenomenon is derived from reports from married couples. Swinging is apparently not very common. People swing for a variety of reasons: most commonly, desire for sexual variety, pleasure, and excitement (Jenks, 1998). Voyeurism reported as a common reason for swinging. Subjects sometimes report that watching another couple teaches them new sexual activities and techniques that they can then enjoy w/ their spouse. Swingers report that watching others have sex helps them to eliminate some of their own sexual inhibitions Troilism “swinging Troilism “swinging Troilism or “Swinging” Troilism or “Swinging” Fetishism Fetishism The person derives sexual pleasure from objects, articles of clothing, or other things In a TRUE fetish, this object is the SOLE, compelling focus of sexual interest and is preferred For a dx, it has to be difficult for the person to achieve sexual pleasure and orgasm WITHOUT the fetish being involved. Sexually fixated on the object and the object is necessary for optimal sexual pleasure. 11% of men and 6% of women report some fetish behavior Diverse objects: clothing, shoes, soft fabrics, leather, and rubber Fetishism Fetishism Some Fetishes Some Fetishes Acomoclitic Shaved completely hairless genitals arousal. Agoraphilia —Gettin' it on out in public Alphmegamia —Bring on the older, seasoned men. Altocalciphilia —High heels make this person horny. Cunnilalia —talking about female genitalia Doraphilia —Feeling of fur or skin is sensual and erotic Graophilia —Older females Gynonudomania ripping clothes off of other people Hirsutophilia —Aroused by armpit hair Macrogenitalism —Aroused by large genitals Medolalia —aroused by talking about everything phallus. Pubephilia —pubic hair Coulrophilia —clowns Electrophilia —to be shocked Fisting —aroused by either receiving or giving of a hand, fist, or forearm into rectum or vagina. Gynemimetophilia —crossdressed man Hebephilia —Teenagers Lactaphilia —arousal of mammaries, breast milk Maieusiophilia —Pregnant women More Fetishes More Fetishes Still more fetishes Still more fetishes Nymphomania/Satyriasisaroused by the uncontrollable desire of woman/men for sex, OculolinctusAroused by licking eyeballs. Odaxelagnia —Bite me. No, really, bite me! Parthenophilia arousal to deflower virgins. Podophilia —about feet. Retifism —Turned on by shoes. Spectrophilia aroused from images in mirrors. Thlipsosis — Turned on by pinching. Fetishism: Types Fetishism: Types Media Fetish – Arousal from an object based on the material from which it is made (ie leather, silk, fur) Fetishism: Types Fetishism: Types Media Fetish – Arousal from an object based on the material from which it is made (high heeled shoes, boots, lingerie) Partialism Fetish – A particular body part serves as the fetish object (hands, feet, hair) Fetishism: Types Fetishism: Types A person who derives sexual arousal and gratification from cross dressing – NOT a transgendered person, nor a drag queen Mostly heterosexual men Generally masturbate when dressed up Behavior causes personal problems Not seen in women Transvestic Fetishism Transvestic Fetishism Transvestite Research Findings Transvestite Research Findings 89% reported as heterosexual in large 1992 study 60% were married 69% had fathered children 76% raised in two parent homes 45% sought counseling 76% felt their fathers provided a “good masculine image” Subjects report enjoying masculine and feminine sides equally Definition Sexual arousal from rubbing the penis or clitoris against a non consenting person Common on subways and elevators Frotteurism Frotteurism Autoerotic asphyxia (AEA), the practice of using strangulation to enhance the pleasure of masturbating Autoerotic Asphyxia Autoerotic Asphyxia (Asphyxiaphilia) AKA Scarfing Breath play among sadomasochistic and bondage oriented circles Gasper one who participates in breath play Terminal sex describes self or partner inflicted sexual asphyxiation Between 250 and 1000 deaths per year At least 31% of all adolescent hangings No solid information on actual participation rates Motivation? Autoerotic Asphyxia Autoerotic Asphyxia (Asphyxiaphilia) Thrill seeking and/or sexual experimentation (most common motivation) Pseudomasochistic fantasy of bondage and pain Risk of sudden death may also serve to increase the sexual pleasure Physical Sexual Effects Autoerotic Asphyxia Autoerotic Asphyxia (Asphyxiaphilia) Cerebral hypoxia is induced Giddiness, lowered cerebral inhibitions Erection may be induced/enhanced Fast rush of blood to brain similar to use of amyl/butyl nitrate Ligature may be released at orgasm Typically have failsafe plan (e.g., certain types of knots, bite on lemon wedge, keep feet on floor, foot controlled release) Warning – next three slides may be disturbing Autoerotic Asphyxia Autoerotic Asphyxia (Asphyxiaphilia) Autoerotic Asphyxia Autoerotic Asphyxia Autoerotic Asphyxia Autoerotic Asphyxia (Asphyxiaphilia) Males (most common) Autoerotic Asphyxia Autoerotic Asphyxia (Asphyxiaphilia) Typically aged 13 to 20 yrs. White, middleclass, welladjusted, high achievers History of BDSM interests Transvestitism possible (26% of cases) Homosexuality not a risk factor Females Autoerotic Asphyxia Autoerotic Asphyxia (Asphyxiaphilia) Far smaller number than males (12% of cases) May be underreported Less accompanying paraphilias Usually nude, single ligature, no special clothes or props other than vibrator or dildo Low incidence number may be due to ambiguous death scene Uncommon Paraphilias Uncommon Paraphilias Gerontophilia Compulsive and compelling interest in having sexual relations with elderly women (usually young men) Necrophilia A person compelled to have sexual intercourse with a corpse Zoophilia Uncommon Paraphilias Uncommon Paraphilias Bestiality—having penetrating sex with an animal Includes masturbating on the animal, fellatio, anal penetration, or cunnilingus Kinsey reported 50% of rural men had interaction with animals Klismaphilia Participating in enemas for sexual pleasure Fluid inserted anally into rectum by self or partner Use water, alcohol, or cocaine for effect Increased sensations Expel fluids Uncommon Paraphilias Uncommon Paraphilias Coprophilia Urophilia Desire to incorporate human feces into sexual activity Defecating on partner or manually handling feces “Golden showers” Sexual activity of urinating on self or others Pyrophilia Infantilism Sexual arousal from setting fires or watching things burn Sexual arousal from impersonating or being treated as an infant (may be incorporated into S&M) Fetish video Fetish video ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/28/2011 for the course PSYCH 170 taught by Professor Harding during the Fall '09 term at CUNY Hunter.
- Fall '09