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The Study of SexologyThe Study of Sexology
Richard von Krafft-Ebing (1840-1902)German psychiatrist focus- abnormal sexuality/sexual deviance Collected case histories of ‘pathological’ indiv & wrote Psychopathia Sexualis- but not very tolerant nor objective•Introduced terms such as fetishism, masochism, sadism •Believed homosexuality caused by masturbation or debauchery, but most often due to degenerate heredity–Parents who partake in too much alcohol, opium, tobacco permanently damage heredity; children will suffer consequences •Focused on problems, but never solutions•Ellis and Freud wrote major criticisms of book •Krafft-Ebing recanted himself a year before his death
Sigmund Freud (1846-1939)Viennese physician; Founder of psychoanalytic theoryInfluential among American sexologists, criticized for lack of data and biases against womenIn the field of sex research, his work is now primarily of historical interestHe worked during Victorian era – its remarkable he was able to say what he did in such repressive and rigid timesFelt that sexuality was CENTRAL to human development
Sigmund Freud (1846-1939)•Psychosexual stages
Henry Havelock Ellis (1859-1939)Victorian English physician (collected data about sex not judgments) Wrote Studies in the Psychology of Sex(1896), based on medical studies, case histories, research 1st vol banned- bookseller tried on obscenity charges Suggested homosexuality innate/biologicalSuggested masturbation as means of mental relaxation1st to discuss erogenous zones Suggested that sex should be pleasurable for both partnersUrged people to be more tolerant of “sexual deviations,” as he believed they were harmless
Clelia Duel Mosher (1863-1940)•American Physician interviewed 47 married well-educated women from 1900-1920.–Earliest known survey of women’s sexuality–Wasn’t published until 1980!•She found that women desired intercourse and experienced orgasm fairly frequently. •About 2/3rd had used contraception •MA Thesis- identified reasons for severe menstrual pains
Clelia Duel Mosher (1863-1940)1908 1922
Magnus Hirschfeld (1868-1935)•German physician considered “founder of scientific sexology”•1908, published 1st Journal for Sexology •1913, he co-founded 1stsexological organization•Hirschfeld believed a better scientific understanding of homosexuality would eliminate hostility toward homosexuals.
Magnus Hirschfeld (1868-1935)•1st research center - theInstitute for Sexual Science in Berlin (1919) •Offered tx for sex-related problems such as infertility and STDs. •Had lectures for professionals/info sessions for general public.
Magnus Hirschfeld (1868-1935)•Conducted 1stlarge scale sex survey on 10,000 people•1stto distinguish btw homosexuality & transvestism(he was both)•Most of his data destroyed when the Nazis burned the Institute and all materials
Magnus Hirschfeld (1868-1935)•Nazi raid on Institute
Margaret Sanger (1879-1966)•American nurse working w/poor NYC immigrants –Attributed mothers early death to 7