Phil 2010 First Class Notes

Phil 2010 First Class Notes - Plato I THE EUTHYPHRO FIRST...

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Plato I. THE EUTHYPHRO FIRST: The point of the dialogue and the point of philosophy SECOND: The setting THIRD: The Definitions and Refutations: A. piety is prosecuting anyone who is guilty of a crime (not prosecuting such a person is impiety) Refutation: merely an example of piety and impiety, not the essence (Idea, Form) B. that which is dear to the gods is pious (that which is hateful to the gods is impious) Refutation: the gods have disagreements C. what all gods love is pious (what they all hate is impious; what some love and some hate is both or neither) Refutation: Love of gods is an accidental attribute, not an essential or defining characteristic D. piety is a part of justice, either (a) concerned with care of the gods or (b) that is service to the gods. Refutation: We can’t benefit the gods. E. piety is (5a) knowledge of sacrifice and prayer, (5b) giving to and begging from the gods, (5c) a “trading skill” between gods and men Refutation: We can’t benefit the gods But: praying can just be pleasing to the gods Refutation: See refutations of B and C above. Final: aporia
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II. PLATO’S DIVIDED LINE PURE BEING A Forms, noesis dialectic (understanding) Being= the intelligible Knowledge (God illuminates) few, one, mathematical absolutes & scientific dianoia realities (thought) B (hypotheses) C sensed objects pistis in sun (belief, faith, Becoming= opinion) the visible, the many Opinion (Sun illuminates) eikasia in cave D images (imaging, (shadows, perceiving, reflections) conjecture) PURE NOT-BEING AB:CD :: A:B :: C:D :: ~1:2
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II. PLATO’S ALLEGORY OF THE CAVE Russell I. RUSSELL The Value of Philosophy: It helps us know what we don’t know—without it, we may as well be subjectivists, believing that what we believe is all there is. It helps is learn to reason better so that we can get past our own prejudices and so we can’t be easily duped. It helps broaden our horizons—as we recognize our own prejudices can be wrong, we seek to learn to truth and thus consider different possible views.
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Descartes III. DESCARTES’ RATIONALIST REALISM A. Foundationalist Philosophy i. Rationalism vs. Empiricism ii. Realism vs. Idealism B. Hyperbolic Doubt i. The Dream Argument ii. The Evil Demon C. The Cogito (and The Matrix , again) D. God: infinite, so existing E. God: conceptually necessary, so existing F. Material Objects: the passive and active faculty argument 1. I have a passive faculty (I sense; “receive” info) (A) 2. Use of the passive faculty requires an active faculty (to “send/transmit” info) (def) 3. There exists an active faculty which causes my sensations (1, 2) But what is that faculty? It must have formal reality (to cause my ideas) 4. The active faculty is either in (a) me, (b) God, (c) some other creature or (d) material objects themselves (A) 5. I naturally believe the active faculty is in (d). (A) 6. If the active faculty is in (a), (b), or (c), God deceives me or made me such that I am naturally deceived (5, def of God) 7. God wouldn’t deceive me or design me to be naturally deceived (def of God) 8. Hence, the active faculty isn’t in (a), (b), or (c) (6, 7) 9. The active faculty is in (d) material objects (4, 8) 10. Material Objects exist (9) G. validity and soundness
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