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Ch 21 PPT - Juvenile Delinquency and Community-Based...

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Juvenile Delinquency and Community-Based Aftercare: A Review and Assessment Chapter 21
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Overview Background OJJDP’s Juvenile Aftercare Initiative Juvenile Aftercare Programs: Best Practices? City Challenge Intensive Aftercare Program, New York City Lifeskills’95, Los Angeles Philadelphia County Juvenile Probation Department Eastman Youth development Campus
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Overview Juvenile Reentry Population Custody Trends Offense Profile for Youth in Custody Demographic Profile for Youth in Custody Time Served Recidivism
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Introduction Challenges of prisoner reentry has received considerable attention recently 1980s and 1990s “tough on crime” policies NIJ recognized reentry challenges Poor job skills, drugs, criminal influences, difficulty finding work, mental health issues, family problems NIJ Prisoner Reentry Initiative
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Introduction Research literature Consistently documents failures of pre-release preparation, post-release support, and high recidivism rates Disproportionate attention on adults had two consequences Juvenile inmates neglected or ignored OJJDP pioneers federal interest in community- based aftercare, 12 years before NIJ spearheaded interest in adult prisoner reentry
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Background Two-track justice system Solely based on age of offender Age 16 to 17 cut-off Since 1899 juvenile court inception Pater patriae and parens patriae
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Background Parens patriae Juvenile courts are (1) informal and nonadversarial; (2) guided by a philosophy of nonintervention; (3) oriented towards the least restrictive sanction, usually community-based treatment rather than custody; and (4) concerned with the rehabilitation of the delinquent and the prevention of subsequent delinquency. Adults courts are: 1) formal and adversarial; (2) intrusive; and (3) focused on punishment, incapacitation and deterrence .
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Background Contradictory evidence First existence of chronic offenders 1970s research: 7% of the sample was responsible for 61% of the delinquent acts Rapid increases in juvenile crime in the 1970s and 1980s Decline in the rehabilitative ideal
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