comm102 notes - Communications102 MethodologicalApproaches...

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Communications 102 19:45 Methodological Approaches Correlation study Experiment Quasi-experiment: not quite an experiment o Random assignment is not possible for ethical or practical reasons o Researcher must take people “as they are” o The researcher may attempt to match the 2 groups on every variable, but  there is no way of knowing that the 2 groups are equivalent in every  aspect o Strength and weaknesses Strength     : Can be used when random assignment is not possible.  Weakness     : Cannot be used to infer causality. Longitudinal study o Individuals are followed over time o 15-year longitudinal study by Huesmann in 2003
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. o Strengths and Weaknesses Strengths     : The presumed cause precedes the presumed effect in time. Can look at cumulative effects and long-term effects. Weaknesses     : Random assignment not possible. Very costly to conduct. Types of Surveys Face to face Telephone Mailed Internet Fax Polls
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Text-messages Margin of Error 79%: violence in the media is a major factor in real-life violence o Could be 82% o Could be 76% We are confident that the “true” percent is somewhere within this range A random sample of 1,200 has a 3% margin of error regardless of the size of   the population from which the sample was drawn . Since 1950, Gallup poll results taken just before U.S. National election days  have diverged from actual election results by only 1.4%. Strengths and Weaknesses o Strengths     Good for assessing public opinion Sometimes the only method available
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o Weaknesses     Requires a representative sample Based on self-reports Cannot be used to infer causality Content Analysis:   Describes in a systematic manner the content of the communication. Strengths and Weaknesses o Strengths     : Unobtrusive: No impact on what is being studied Can study processes over long periods of time o Weaknesses     : Cannot establish effects Correlation Coefficient ( r ) Ranges from +1.0 (a perfect positive  correlation) to -1.0 (a perfect negative   correlation). A value of 0 indicates that the two variables are not linearly  related. The sign on the correlation gives the direction of the relationship.
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The value of the correlation coefficient indicates the strength of the relation. Few correlations are perfect. o
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comm102 notes - Communications102 MethodologicalApproaches...

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