Anthrbio 161 3rd unit
Lecture Early Species of
How are members of genus
recognized in the fossils record?
Small face, long limbs, large brain size, decreased tooth size.
What trends in body size, brain size, tooth size, hand anatomy and tool use are
initiated with early
and then continue in later species of
Large brain size, small tooth size > shorter tooth row, smaller cheek teeth,
sexually dimorphic by size, opposable thumbs, flakes, hammers, to axes.
What features differentiate the two skulls KNM-ER 1813 and 1470, and why do
many paleontologists think the skulls are from different species?
They think they are different because 1470 (rudolfensis) looked ape like but
there are no post-cranial remains. 1813 is Homo habilis.
What is the Oldowan toolkit, and why do archeologists think Oldowan tools were
used to butcher animals?
They’re mode 1 tools, very primitive. Flakes, hammers, cores, manuports.
Flakes were sharp enough to cut through elephant hide and they were all
found near animal bones. Also, they chipped animal bones.
Distinguished by bigger brain, smaller molars and premolars,
stone tools – “Oldowan”, manipulative hands, committed biped. 1813 skull.
Homo habilis at first.
Kenya. Has a slight superorbital torus.
Rough cranium similar to 1470, closer to the genus Homo.
Lecture Later Species of
What are the age, geographical distribution, body size, brain size, level of
dimorphism, inferred diet and locomotion and tool kit of
1.9 - .1 mya. Widely distributed. Compared to modern humans, Homo