bio review - Review Sheet for Midterm 1 Natural Selection...

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Review Sheet for Midterm 1 Natural Selection Questions : Prior to Darwin, what was the predominant world view about whether life forms could change over time? 1. Statis: Fixity of species (God created all life forms) and Great Chain of Being (all life forms can be places in a hierarchy from simple to complex with humans at the top) 2. Earth Is Young: Earth only began in 4004 B.C Describe how the work of Lamarck, Malthus and Lyell, among others, influenced the work of Charles Darwin. - Lamarck: Evolution by inheritance of acquired characteristics. Use or disuse of a body part can affect that organ. Ex: Neck of giraffe is long because it is stretched out. - Malthus: Recognized that populations have the potential to increase at a faster rate than resources. As a result, there is intense competition among individuals for resources - Lyell: “Uniformitarianism: Emphasizes slow and gradual change - Buffon: Believed animals changed in response to their environment - Eramus Darwin: Believed species could change over time - Cuvier: Catastrophism What are the necessary conditions for natural selection to occur? 1. Struggle for existence among organisms: the ability of a population to expand is infinite, but the ability of the environment to support populations is finite 2. Variation in fitness: organisms within populations vary, variation affects the relative ability of individuals to survive and reproduce 3. Inheritance: variation is passed from parent to offspring Define convergent evolution, phyletic gradualism and punctuated equilibrium. - Convergence: evolution of similar adaptations in unrelated groups of animals, animals
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bio review - Review Sheet for Midterm 1 Natural Selection...

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