83. The field is radially outward and takes on equal magnitude-values over the surface of any sphere centered at the atom’s center. We take the Gaussian surface to be such a sphere (of radius r). If Eis the magnitude of the field, then the total flux through the Gaussian sphere is24 rEΦ= π. The charge enclosed by the Gaussian surface is the positive charge at the center of the atom plus that portion of the negative charge within the surface. Since the negative charge is uniformly distributed throughout the large sphere
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Electric charge, Fundamental physics concepts, Negative charge, R. Gauss