85. (a) The diagram below shows a cross section (or, perhaps more appropriately, “end view”) of the charged cylinder (solid circle). Consider a Gaussian surface in the form of a cylinder with radius rand length A, coaxial with the charged cylinder. An “end view” of the Gaussian surface is shown as a dotted circle. The charge enclosed by it is 2,qVrρρ==πAwhere 2Vr=πAis the volume of the cylinder. If ρis positive, the electric field lines are radially outward, normal to the Gaussian surface and distributed uniformly along it. Thus, the total flux through the Gaussian
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