100. (a) We use Gauss’ law to find expressions for the electric field inside and outside the spherical charge distribution. Since the field is radial the electric potential can be written as an integral of the field along a sphere radius, extended to infinity. Since different expressions for the field apply in different regions the integral must be split into two parts, one from infinity to the surface of the distribution and one from the surface to a point inside. Outside the charge distribution the magnitude of the field is E = q/4πε0r2 and the potential is V = q/4πε0r, where ris the distance from the center of the distribution. This is the same as the field and potential of a point charge at the center of the spherical distribution. To find an expression for the magnitude of the field inside the charge distribution, we use a Gaussian surface in the form of a sphere with radius r, concentric
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