19. (a) and (b) We note that the charge on C3is q3= 12 µC – 8.0 µC = 4.0 µC. Since the charge on C4is q4= 8.0 µC, then the voltage across it is q4/C4= 2.0 V. Consequently, the voltage V3across C3 is 2.0 V ¡C3= q3/V3= 2.0 µF. Now C3and C4 are in parallel and are thus equivalent to 6 µF capacitor which would then be in series with C2 ; thus, Eq 25-20 leads to an equivalence of
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