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Unformatted text preview: SOC 100 HISTORY REVIEW Factors that led to the emergence of sociology o Intellectual- The englightenment (1700s), studied and focused on science, progress, and the individual, before science was religion (catholicism), individual is capable of making science The counter-enlightenment- reaction to enlightenment, all about institutions, too much individualism leads to anarchy Differentiation of social sciences within the university History, economics, psychology, and anthropology, sociology did not exist yet o Economic- Expansion of commerce and markets- Ex. Colonialism, source of raw materials, expanding to new lands Industrialization- Ex. Industrial revolution, factory was mass produced, the result was urbanization o Social- Urbanization- Urbanization because you have to work where the factories are Decline of local communities- People were moving to where the factories were, and therefore there were no more local communities o Political- Rise of bureaucratic nation states- Monarchies, smaller states led to bigger states Decline in the power of the church Church is no longer the same as it was Feminism- Equality of women, unseen before o Result- an attempt to explain social chaos People want to try and explain the social chaos, why arent things the way they used to be? What is going on? As the economic, social, and political change in Europe became more dramatic in the 19 th century, there was an interest in assessing that social change scientifically, based on enlightenment thinking, and a belief that the institutional and collective perspective must be considered, based on the Counter-Enlightenment perspective. Sociology became the specialized form of assessing social change, drawing from earlier social science disciplines, such as history, economics, psychology, and anthropology Auguste Comte (1798-1857) o Proto-sociology- sociology is not born yet, its in the process of being born o Comte was French, and believed societies went through 3 stages Theological- people believed that the world was controlled by supernatural forces Metaphysical- world is controlled by external approaches, but not yet scientific Scientific/positive- the way the world works is scientifically looking at cause and effect Harriet Martineau Developed principles and methods of empirical social research Talked about how do we go about studying sociology and how should we approach this study Talked about method, wrote a book about how fashion is killing women i.e. corsets mother of sociology because they talked about how they should study it Karl Marx historical materialism- the touchstone for all subsequent sociological work o believes in the notion of progress and enlightenment thinking, positive evolution of society o chaos is forward movement. Driven by conflicts. Conflicts are related to production o Karl Marx believed that what distinguishes us from other animals, we...
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