anthro 101 final notes - ANTHRO FINAL NOTES 10 units on...

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ANTHRO FINAL NOTES 10 units on this final Lecture 10: Food Production 6 questions domestication of plants and animals focus on: o middle eastern case of domesticaiton of plants and animals o analogy to eden o wheat, barly, goats, sheep, vertical economy, hilly flanks—know well o know consequences of domestication, what happened to human society because people had surpluses of food that weren’t previously available to them o evolution of the state Anthropology can be interpreted as a “new and improved” cosmology. We have already seen how theories of evolution attempt to make sense of human origins, just as accounts of divine creation do. The parallel trend in new and old cosmologies continues in our discussion of food production , or domestication . If tales of “natural selection” explain how we evolved over millions of years, tales of “domestication” explain how we have acquired, in less than 10,000 years, the levels of social and cultural complexity we see around us today. The old cosmologies reassert themselves in tales of domestication, since the advent of food production is construed, explicitly in the Book of Genesis and implicitly in the Book of Kottak, as a curse that accompanies knowledge. Read Genesis 3:17-19. Read from Kottak 11:250. [Don’t worry; I’ll read this to you in class.] Both scriptures place humans in an original “state of nature” which is preferable, in many ways, to the kinds of societies we live in now. [Hobbes vs. Sahlins]. So the most important question is … Why would humans opt for a way of life that brings with it so many maladaptive, dangerous, and evil things? What makes it worthwhile to live a life of domestication? The simplest answers: Global warming. Retreating glaciers. Drier climates. Big game extinctions around the world. Broad spectrum foraging. All of this starts about 15,000 B.P. By 10,000 B.P., people in the Middle East were already subsisting on domesticated wheat, goats, and sheep, and living in permanent
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settlements. By 7,000 B.P., people were abandoning broad-spectrum economies in favor of economies based on a few domesticated sources of food. The Garden of Eden, in the new and improved cosmology, is a place called the Hilly Flanks . This was one climatic zone in the vertical economy of the Fertile Crescent of what is today called the Middle East. Vertical economy : highland plateau, hilly flanks (woodlands), lowland steppe (treeless), and alluvial plain. Natufians (12,500-10,500 B.P) worked out the initial adaptation to this array of climates. They harvested wild cereals and hunted gazelles and wild sheep and goats. They had permanent villages in the Hilly Flanks, near the densest supply of wild wheat. They harvested so much wheat (at least a ton per family), in so little time (less than three weeks), that they had to store the surplus and stay near it year round. The
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anthro 101 final notes - ANTHRO FINAL NOTES 10 units on...

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