Raines Chapter

Raines Chapter - CHAPTER 1 The Historical Development of EARLY ATTEMPTS AT UNDERSTANDING THE BRAIN The Brain Hypothesis The Problem of Localization

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CHAPTER 1 The Historical Development of EARLY ATTEMPTS AT UNDERSTANDING THE BRAIN The Brain Hypothesis The Problem of Localization of Function THE BEGINNINGS OF MODERN NEUROPSYCHOLOGY: BROCA Antecedents to Broca: Gall and Bouillaud The Case of "Tan" The Concept of Hemispheric Dominance: The Left Hemisphere and Language The Discovery of the Motor Cortex: Fritsch and Hitzig FURTHER DISCOVERIES: WERNICKE Wernicke's Discovery of Receptive Aphasia The Concept of Sequential Processing The Disconnection Syndrome Hypothesis The Concept of Complementary Hemispheric Specialization: The Role of the Right Hemisphere An Example of a Disconnection Syndrome: Alexia Without Agraphia LOCALIZATION VERSUS HOLISM The Limits of Localization: The Mapmakers Reconciliation of the Holist and Localizationist Views: Hughlings-Jackson's Concept of Hierarchy Bias and Preconception in Early-20th-Century Neuropsychology THE PSYCHOMETRIC APPROACH TO NEUROPSYCHOLOGY Group Studies and Statistical Analysis The Continuing Role of the Case Study RECENT FINDINGS SUMMARY ln 1882, French neurologist Joseph Jules Dejmine reported an unusual case. His patient, a successful businessman, had awakened one morning tojnd he had lost the ability to read. He could speak and understand language, he could see, and he could write, yet he could not read, not even what he himself had written. (He could, however, read by touching raised letters.) A fm &ys later, on awakening, the man found that he had also last the ability to write. What could cause such a puzzling syndrome? The answer to this question, discovered only post-mortem, provided evidence for an important hypothesis about the nervous system in the 19th century-the hypothesis that diferent areas of the brain are specializedfor differ- entfunctions and that, if connections between areas are disrupted, distinct capabilities are lost. The early his- toy of neuropsychology is marked by individual cases like this one, each contributing some important piece to the puzzle of how the brain works. In this chapter we consider the history of neuropsychology, from the earli- est human attempts at understanding how behavior is controlled to the most recentjndings about the organi- mtion of the brain.
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PART 1 Foundations FIGURE 1.1 The bepanned skull of a man discovered in a cave in France in 1854. The skull is from the collection of the Musk de I'Homrne, Paris. (Fm Finger, 1994, p. 4) EARLY ATTEMPTS AT UNDERSTANDING THE BRAIN The Brain Hypothesis As we consider the history of neuropsychology, one of the first concepts we encounter is the brain hy- pothesis, the idea that the brain is the biological organ that controls and directs behavior. It may seem strange to think of this as a hypothesis because today we take it as a given. Yet throughout history, a vari- ety of organs have been identified as the center of thinking and feeling. The residqes of some of these notions survive in our language when, for example, we speak of the heart as the seat of compassion or the
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This note was uploaded on 01/31/2011 for the course PSYCH 100 taught by Professor Ryan during the Fall '08 term at CUNY Hunter.

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Raines Chapter - CHAPTER 1 The Historical Development of EARLY ATTEMPTS AT UNDERSTANDING THE BRAIN The Brain Hypothesis The Problem of Localization

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