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topic_14_for_students - Topic 14 Microbial evolution and...

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Topic 14 Microbial evolution and systematics II
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Systematics Study of diversity and relationships between organisms Links phylogeny (ancestry) with taxonomy (identification, classification and nomenclature) Polyphasic approach 1. phenotypic analyses 2. genotypic analyses 3. phylogenetic analyses
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Phenotypic Morphological, physiological, metabolic and chemical characteristics of the cell
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Microscopic characteristics: morphology (cell shape, size, arrangement), flagellar arrangement. endospores, staining reactions (gram stain, acid fast stain) Growth characteristics: appearance in liquid culture, colony morphology, pigmentation, habitat, symbiotic relationships Biochemical characteristics: cell wall chemistry, pigments, storage inclusions, antigens, fatty acids, polar lipids, respiratory quinones Physiological characteristics: temperature range, optimum, O 2 relationships, pH range, osmotic tolerance, salt requirements, tolerance, antibiotic sensitivity Nutritional characteristics: energy sources, carbon sources, nitrogen sources, fermentation products, modes of metabolism (autotrophic, heterotrophic, fermentative, respiratory) Phenotypic characteristics
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Each domain characterized by a number of phenotypic properties unique to one domain or shared by 2 of 3 Summarized in Tables 14.1, 14.2 Barriers to unrestricted gene flow evolved cell walls lipids RNA polymerase inhibition of protein synthesis Phenotypic characteristics
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Domain Characteristics
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Domain Characteristics
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>200 different fatty acids found in bacteria Sample bacterial fatty acids Figure 14.19
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FAME profiles can be used for bacterial identification applications in clinical, public health food, water inspection Figure 14.19 Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis
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Genotypic
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