BSCI201 copy

BSCI201 copy - BSCI201 Dr. O'Brien 8/31/10 Necessary Life...

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BSCI201 Dr. O'Brien 8/31/10 Necessary Life Functions: -maintain boundaries (clear/distinct) -movement (locomotion) -growth (multiplication/increase in size/repair) -responsiveness (adapt to stimuli) -digestion (ability to take in nutrients) -metabolism (use nutrients as energy) -excretion (sweating) Survival Needs: -nutrients -chemicals for energy and cell building -carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals -oxygen -a huge toxic chemical because it produces free radicals which destroy cells antioxidants battle these free radicals -water -provides for metabolic reaction -stable body temperature -37 C Anatomy and Physiology: (form and function are related) -anatomy (form): study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts -physiology (function): study of how the body and its parts work or function both on a microscopic and macroscopic level Anatomy Levels of Study: -gross anatomy (macroscopic) big picture -microscopic anatomy small picture Levels of Organization: -cells: smallest unit of life -tissues: collection of similar cells -organs: structures comprised of two or more tissues that perform a specific function -organ systems: several organs which accomplish a task (LEARN PHYSCIOLOGY THROUGH PATHOLOGY - understand it when sick)
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The Cell Structure and Function: (REVIEW) -cell organelles, structure, and function -protein synthesis -cell division: disease associated Primary Cells/Tissues Classes: -muscle- contraction that generates force (movement) -connective- connects, anchors, supports (support-blood and bone) -epithelial- creates barrier between body and environment/the exchange (skin) -nerve- initiates, transmits electrical impulses (responsiveness- electrical cords) Organization of the Body: -cells, tissues, and organ studies *(know diagram)* Body Fluid Compartments*: -water -intracellular fluid -extracellular fluid -plasma -interstitial fluid Homeostasis: -homeostatsis is used for the maintenance of a stable internal environment to create a dynamic state of equilibrium -necessary for normal body functioning in order to sustain life -imbalance is a disturbance in homeostasis Homeostasis is a Central Organizing Principle of Physiology: Is the process of maintaing stable internal environment compatible for life -most organ systems contribute to homeostasis except the reproductive system -negative feedback control in homeostasis: does opposite of stimuli to cancel it -homeostasis in action: thermoregulation and negative feedback Maintaining Homeostasis: -The body communicates through neural and hormonal control systems receptor: respond to stimuli and sends to control center control center (brian): determines set point and analyzes information effector: provides a means for response to stimuli (cancel or intensify) Feedback Mechanisms: -negative feedback includes most homeostatic control mechanisms shuts off the original stimulus or reduces the intensity of the original stimulus -positive feedback increases the original stimulus to push the variable if stimulus will end
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This note was uploaded on 01/31/2011 for the course BSCI 201 taught by Professor Opoku during the Spring '07 term at Maryland.

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BSCI201 copy - BSCI201 Dr. O'Brien 8/31/10 Necessary Life...

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