Lab 9 Student Notes

Lab 9 Student Notes - Lab 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION Living...

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Lab 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION Living cells of all organisms need energy to maintain life, and this energy is obtained from food by the process of cellular respiration. During respiration, complex organic substances within all living cells of an organism are broken down to form simpler compounds with an accompanying release of energy (ATP). This process occurs continuously , and night, in all living cells, plants and animals, and if it stops, the cell will die. Respiration is not a simple process; it involves a series of perhaps 50 reactions that are each catalyzed by a specific enzyme. Energy released by respiration is of vital importance to all organisms because this energy is required to complete essential metabolic functions. This energy is used to synthesize various organic compounds and for growth and repair of cell contents. Without the process of respiration you would not be able to walk, run, bike, swim, or exercise in any way. Aerobic respiration is characterized by the oxidation of organic substances (sugars) in living cells by free atmospheric oxygen (O 2 ). Eventually, the organic compounds will be broken down to form carbon dioxide, water, and energy. The aerobic respiration reaction can be summarized by the following general equation: Respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Energy (36 ATP) Enzymes Anaerobic respiration occurs in the absence of free oxygen and results in the incomplete oxidation of organic substances to yield intermediate compounds plus the release of energy. Compared to aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration results in a much reduced energy yield. When the anaerobic breakdown of organic substances is accompanied by evolution of gas, the process is called fermentation. Anaerobic respiration occurs commonly in fungi and bacteria, but also occurs in humans as a consequence of strenuous exercise. The “burning” sensation you experience in your muscle cells during exercise takes place as the oxygen within these cells is depleted and intermediate compounds accumulate during anaerobic respiration. The anaerobic respiration reaction can be summarized by the following general equation: Respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 2C 2 H 5 OH + 2CO 2 + Energy (2 ATP) Enzymes (Ethanol) EXERCISE I. RESPIRATION RATE IN A VERTEBRATE ORGANISM
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Lab 9 Student Notes - Lab 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION Living...

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