Lab 12 Student Notes

Lab 12 Student Notes - Lab 12 Urinalysis Exercise 41A and...

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Lab 12 Urinalysis Exercise 41A and Packet Information A. Characteristics of Urine 1. Description – Color [due to urochrome; a product from the breakdown of hemoglobin to bilirubin/bile pigments] - coloration ranges from light straw to amber. - deviations from this normal coloration may have pathological implications: a. Milky --- due to pus, bacteria, or fat b. Reddish amber --- due to urobilinogen or porphyrin. Urobilinogen is produced in the intestines by bacterial action on bile pigment. Porphyrin may indicate cirrhosis of the liver, jaundice, Addison’s disease, etc. c. Brownish-yellow or green --- due to bile pigments. Yellow foam is definite evidence of bile pigments. d. Red to smoky brown --- due to blood and blood pigments. [carrots, beets, rhubarb, and certain drugs may color the urine and not indicate any pathological conditions] {normal urine should be clear, but may turn a bit cloudy after standing a while. Cloudiness may indicate phosphates, urates, pus, mucus, bacteria, epithelial cells, fat, etc.} 2. Odor - freshly voided urine is slightly aromatic. - bacterial action, when left standing, results in an ammonia-like odor. - uncontrolled diabetes mellitus results in a fruity or acetone-like odor. 3. Specific Gravity - usually ranges between 1.001-1.030 or [1.015 - 1.025] - indicates the amount of solutes in the urine. The more solids in solution, the higher the specific gravity. - specific gravity of distilled water is 1.000 - a lower than normal specific gravity may indicate chronic nephritis or diabetes insipidus, whereas a high specific gravity may indicate fever, acute nephritis, or possibly diabetes mellitus. 4. pH - normal range is from 4.5-8.0 (average of 6.0). - pH can vary during the day and with your diet. - a low pH (acidic) occurs with fevers, in acidosis, and with high protein diets (acid ash diet). [carnivores/omnivores excrete more water than they take in due to protein breakdown] - a high pH (basic) may be due to urine retention in the bladder, chronic cystitis, anemia, obstructing gastric ulcers, vegetarian diets (alkaline ash diet), etc. [vegetarians produce more OH - ] 5. Protein - usually the large protein molecules are kept out of the nephron due to their large size. - some conditions can allow them to filter through, such as excessive muscular exertion, and prolonged cold baths. Other causes, such as kidney congestion, toxemia during pregnancy, and anemias, are pathologic disorders.
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6. Glucose - only trace amounts of glucose are normally present in the urine (0.01-0.03 gm/100 ml urine) [blood glucose average is 80-120 mg/100 ml blood] - Amounts greater than this usually indicates diabetes mellitus. 7.
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2011 for the course BIOL 228 taught by Professor Marilynkoob during the Fall '10 term at Boise State.

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Lab 12 Student Notes - Lab 12 Urinalysis Exercise 41A and...

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