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topic_19_for_students - Topic 19 Gram-positive and related...

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Topic 19 Gram-positive and related bacteria
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Phylogenetic Tree Domain Bacteria Figure 15.1
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Gram-positive bacteria (non-sporulating)
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Non-sporulating Gram-positives Staphylococcus and Micrococcus aerobic growth, catalase positive resistant to drying and high salt 7.5% NaCl can select for this group often pigmented Staphylococcus Firmicutes division (low GC) commonly found on animals (including human skin) Micrococcus Actinobacteria division (high GC) isolated from inanimate objects, dust, skin
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O/F (oxidation-fermentation test) Micrococcus (strict aerobe) acid from glucose aerobically Staphylococcus (facultative) acid from glucose aerobically AND anaerobically
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boil on hand scalded skin syndrome Staphylococcus infections Figure 15.1
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Sarcina obligate anaerobes, acid tolerant Mud, soil, feces, stomachs Cell division in three perpendicular planes Cubical “packets” of four, eight or even bigger Non-sporulating Gram-positives Figure 16.2
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Lactic acid bacteria Rods and cocci Aerotolerant anaerobes no electron transport system (no respiration) Substrate level phosphorylation only (fermentation) Complex nutritional requirements Fastidious bacteria (limited biosynthetic capacity)
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Lactic acid bacteria Homofermenters produce lactic acid only Heterofermenters produce lactic acid, ethanol, CO 2
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Figure 21.4
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